Supplemental Materials for articles on Bird Sign: Full Data Sources List & Links to Dataset

Online supplemental materials for the articles Wyndham and Park 2022 and Wyndham and Park 2018, published by The Condor (now Ornithological Applications) and the Journal of Ethnobiology respectively.

This supplemental references list belongs to the following articles:

Wyndham, F., and K. Park (2022). Bird signs can be important for ecocultural conservation by highlighting key information networks in people-bird communities. Ornithological Applications.


Wyndham, F. S., and K. E. Park (2018). “Listen carefully to the voices of the birds”: a comparative review of birds as signs. Journal of Ethnobiology 38:533–549.

Our excel spreadsheet/ database is available at the link to Ornithological Applications article above

Online Supporting Material: Literature Used in Data Collection, by Decade of Publication. Our full data-reference list was too lengthy to publish with our two journal articles so we share it here. All eHRAF citations were accessed in July 2016. Full publications can be read via the document id link provided after each citation if your computer is connected through institutions with an eHRAF subcription (add before the document id).



Callaway, H. 1868. Nursery Tales, Traditions, And Histories Of The Zulus, In Their Own Words, With A Translation Into English, And Notes. Springvale, S. Africa: John A. Blair.  document?id=fx20-013.

Grout, L. 1864. Zululand: Or, Life Among The Zulu-Kafirs Of Natal And Zulu-Land, South Africa. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Publication Company.  document?id=fx20-036.



Musters, G. C. 1873. At Home With The Patagonians. London: J. Murray.  document?id=sh05-002.

Powers, S. 1877. Pomo Tribes Of California. Washington: Govt. Print. Off.  document?id=ns18-014.



Callaway, H. 1884. Religious System Of The Amazulu: Izinyanga Zokubula; Or, Divination, As Existing Among The Amazulu, In Their Own Words, With A Translation Into English, And Notes. London: Trübner and Co.  document?id=fx20-012.

Landes, A. and A. Szogyi. 1881. Notes On The Customs And Popular Superstitions Of The Annamese. Excursions Et Reconnaissances 3(7): 137-48.  document?id=am11-135.

Robinson, P. 1882. The Poet's Birds: Birds of Omen and Superstition. The Gentleman's Magazine 252: 322-341.



Gatschet, A. S. 1890. Klamath Indians Of Southwestern Oregon. Washington: Gov’t. Print. Off.  document?id=nr10-007.

Mooney, J. 1982 (1891). Myths Of The Cherokee: And Sacred Formulas Of The Cherokees. Nashville: C. Elder-Bookseller.  document?id=nn08-021.

Owen, E. 1896. Welsh Folk-Lore: A Collection Of The Folk-Tales And Legends Of North Wales; Being The Prize Essay Of The National Eisteddfod, 1887. Project Gutenberg.

Saxby, J. M.E., and W. A. Clouston, 1893. Birds of Omen In Shetland With Notes On The Folk-Lore Of The Raven And The Owl. Privately Printed.



Gurdon, P.R.T. 1907. Khasis. London: D. Nutt.  document?id=ar07-001.

Rivers, W. H. R. 1906. The Todas. London: Macmillan.  document?id=aw60-001.

Schultze, L. S., E. C. Knight, and T. Ziolkowski. 1907. In Namaland And The Kalahari. Jena: Gustav Fischer.  document?id=fx13-001.



Beyer, H. O. and R. F. Barton. 1911. Ifugao Burial Ceremony. Philippine Journal Of Science 6: 227-252.  document?id=oa19-022.

Czekanowski, J. 1917. Investigations In The Area Between The Nile And The Congo: First Volume: Ethnography, The Interlacustrine Region of Mporo And Ruanda. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann.  document?id=fo57-004.

Fletcher, A. C., and F. La Flesche. 1911. Omaha Tribe. Washington: Government Printing Office.  document?id=nq21-001.

Merker, M. 1910. Masai: Ethnographic Monograph Of An East African Semite People. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.  document?id=fl12-018.

Müller, W. 1917. Yap. Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung, Ergebnisse Der Südsee-Expedition 1908-1910, II. Hamburg: L. Friederichsen & Co.


Roscoe, J. 1911. Baganda: An Account Of Their Native Customs And Beliefs. London: Macmillan and Co.  document?id=fk07-002.

Thomas, N. W. 1913. Anthropological Report On The Ibo-Speaking Peoples Of Nigeria: Pt. I. Law And Custom Of The Ibo Of The Awka Neighbourhood, S. Nigeria. London: Harrison and Sons.  document?id=ff26-019.

Westropp, T. J. 1912. Folklore Survey Of County Clare. Folk-Lore 21:180-99, 338-49, 476-87 ; 22:203-13, 332-41, 449-56; 23: 88-94, 204-15.  document?id=er06-014.



Basedow, H. 1925. The Australian Aboriginal. Adelaide: F. W. Preece and Sons.


Best, E. 1924a,b. Maori: Vols. 1 and 2. Wellington: H.H. Tombs.


Collocott, E. E. V. 1921. Notes on Tongan Religion. Journal of the Polynesian Society 30: 152-63; 227-40.  document?id=ou09-016.

Junod, H. A. 1927. Life Of A South African Tribe: Vol. 1 & 2. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.  document?id=ft06-001.

Lehtisalo, T. and F. Schütze. 1924. Sketch Of A Mythology Of The Yurak Samoyed. Helsinki: Société Finno-ougrienne.  document?id=ru41-017.

Loeb, E. M. 1926. Pomo Folkways. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.  document?id=ns18-003.

Lothrop, S. K. 1928. Indians Of Tierra Del Fuego. New York: Museum of the American Indian.  document?id=sh04-003.

Musil, A. 1928. Manners And Customs Of The Rwala Bedouins. New York: The American Geographical Society.  document?id=md04-002.

Preuss, K.T., M. Moerman, and Berlin Staatliche Museen. 1926. Journey Of Exploration To The Cagaba. St. Gabriel-Mödling Bei Wien: Administration des Anthropos.  document?id=sc07-004.

Westermarck, E. 1926. Ritual And Belief In Morocco. London: Macmillan and Co.  document?id=mx03-002.

Williams, F. E. 1928. Orokaiva Magic. London: Oxford Univ. Press.  document?id=oj23-002; accessed July 2016.

Roscoe, J., and Mackie Ethnological Expedition To Central Africa. 1923. Bakitara Or Banyoro: The First Part Of The Report Of The Mackie Ethnological Expedition To Central Africa. Cambridge: The Univ. Press.  document?id=fk11-014.

Smith, E. W. and A.M. Dale. 1920. Ila-Speaking Peoples Of Northern Rhodesia Vol. 2. London: MacMillan and Co.  document?id=fq06-002.

Swanton, J. R. 1928a. Religious Beliefs And Medicinal Practices Of The Creek Indians. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.  document?id=nn11-002.

Swanton, J. R. 1928b. U.S. Bureau Of American Ethnology: Forty-Second Annual Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.  document?id=nn11-001.



Abraham, R. C. 1933. Tiv People. Lagos: The Government Printer.  document?id=ff57-003.

Akiga, R. E. and International Institute Of African Languages And Cultures. 1939. Akiga’s Story: The Tiv Tribe As Seen By One Of Its Members. London: Oxford Univ. Press.  document?id=ff57-001.

Beaglehole, E. and P. Beaglehole. 1935. Hopi Of The Second Mesa. Menasha, WI.: American Anthropological Association.  document?id=nt09-056.

Beaglehole, E. and P. Beaglehole. 1937. Notes On Hopi Economic Life. New Haven: Pub. for the Section of Anthropology, Yale Univ..

Bennett, W. C. and R. M. Zingg. 1935. Tarahumara: An Indian Tribe Of Northern Mexico. Chicago, Illinois: The Univ. of Chicago Press.  document?id=nu33-001 .

Bunzel, R. L. 1932. Introduction To Zuñi Ceremonialism. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office.  document?id=nt23-005.

Conzemius, E. 1932. Ethnographical Survey Of The Miskito And Sumu Indians Of Honduras And Nicaragua. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.  document?id=sa15-001.

Deacon, B. and C. H. Wedgwood. 1934. Malekula: A Vanishing People in the New Hebrides. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd.  document?id=oo12-004.

Griaule, M. and J. H. Winchell. 1938. Dogon Masks. Paris: Institut d’Ethnologie.  document?id=fa16-008.

Griaule, M., and M. A. Marcus. 1938. Dogon Games. Paris: Institut d’Ethnologie.  document?id=fa16-013.

Gusinde, M. and F. Schütze. 1937. Yahgan: The Life And Thought Of The Water Nomads Of Cape Horn. Die Feuerland-Indianer [The Fuegian Indians]. Mödling Bei Wein: Anthropos-Bibliothek.  document?id=sh06-001.

Gusinde, M. 1931. Fireland Indians: Vol. 1. The Selk’Nam, On The Life And Thought Of A Hunting People Of The Great Island Of Tierra Del Fuego. Mödling Bei Wien: Verlag der Internationalen Zeitschrift.  document?id=sh04-001.

Hambly, W. D. 1934. Ovimbundu of Angola: Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnological Expedition To West Africa, 1929-30. Anthropological Series, Chicago.  document?id=fp13-003.

Janashia, N. S. 1937. Religious Beliefs Of The Abkhasians. Georgica 1(4): 117-53.  document?id=ri03-003.

Jones, W. and M. W. Fisher. 1939. Ethnography Of The Fox Indians. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt Print. Off.  document?id=np05-001.

Karsten, R. 1935. Head-Hunters Of Western Amazonas: The Life And Culture Of The Jibaro Indians Of Eastern Ecuador And Peru. Helsingfors: Centraltryckeriet.  document?id=sd09-001.

Lebzelter, V. and R. Neuse. 1934. Native Cultures in Southwest and South Africa: Vol. 2. Leipzig: K. W. Hiersemann.  document?id=fx10-003.

Lesser, A. 1933. Pawnee Ghost Dance Hand Game. Contributions To Anthropology. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.  document?id=nq18-002.

Malherbe, W. A. 1934. Tiv-English Dictionary With Grammar Notes And Index. Lagos: Government Printer.  document?id=ff57-011.

Man, E. H. 1932. On The Aboriginal Inhabitants Of The Andaman Islands. London: The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.  document?id=az02-002.

Métraux, A. 1939. Myths And Tales Of The Matako Indians (The Gran Chaco, Argentina). Gothenburg, Sweden: Walter Kaudern.  document?id=si07-003.

Nordenskiöld, E., R. érez Kantule, and H. Wassén. 1938. Historical And Ethnological Survey Of The Cuna Indians. Göteborg, Sweden: Göteborg Museum.  document?id=sb05-001.

Olson, R. L. 1936. Quinault Indians. Seattle: Univ. of Washington.  document?id=nr17-001.

Pagés, G. and B. Scholl. 1933. Hamitic Kingdom In The Center Of Africa: In Ruanda On The Shores Of Lake Kivu (Belgian Congo). Bruxelles: Libraire Falk fils.  document?id=fo57-003.

Speck, F. G. 1935. Naskapi, The Savage Hunters Of The Labrador Peninsula. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.  document?id=nh06-002.

Underhill, R. and M. Chona. 1936. The Autobiography of a Papago Woman. The American Anthropological Association, Menasha, Wis.



Cooper, J. M. 1946. Araucanians. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.  document?id=sg04-005.

Elwin, V. 1947. Muria And Their Ghotul. Bombay: Oxford Univ. Press.  document?id=aw32-002.

Gayton, A. H. 1948. Yokuts and Western Mono Ethnography: Vol. 1, Tulare Lake, Southern Valley, And Central Foothill Yokuts. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.  document?id=ns29-001.

Goodwin, G. and J. T. Goodwin. 1942. Social Organization of The Western Apache. The Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.  document?id=nt21-001.

Grigson, W. V. and V. Elwin. 1949. Maria Gonds of Bastar. London: Oxford Univ. Press.  document?id=aw32-001.

Itkonen, T. I.,  O. Guemati and E. Perez-Roman. 1948. Lapps In Finland Up To 1945. Vol. 2. Helsinki: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.  document?id=ep04-017.

La Barre, W. 1948. Aymara Indians Of The Lake Titicaca Plateau. Menasha, WI.: American Anthropological Association.  document?id=sf05-003.

Ling, S., Y. Ruey, and L. Tsao. 1947. Report On An Investigation Of The Miao Of Western Hunan. Shanghai, China: Academia Sinica.  document?id=ae05-002.

McIlwraith, T. F. 1948. Bella Coola Indians: Volume One. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.  document?id=ne06-001.

Newcomb, F. J. 1940. Navajo Omens And Taboos. Santa Fe: Rydal Press.  document?id=nt13-099.

Ngô-Quy-Son, and C. A. Messner. 1942. Few Taboos Among The Annamites Of Tonkin. Institut Indochinois Por L’Étude De L'Homme: 31-37.  document?id=am11-078.

Opler, M. E. 1941. An Apache Life-Way: The Economic, Social, and Religious Institutions of the Chiricahua Indians. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 

Reichard, G.A. 1948. Navajo Classification Of Natural Objects. Plateau 21.  document?id=nt13-149.

Talayesva, D C. and L. W. Simmons. 1942. Sun Chief: The Autobiography Of A Hopi Indian. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.  document?id=nt09-007.

Turrado M. A. and S. Muirden. 1945. Ethnography Of The Guarauno Indians. Caracas: Lit. y Tip. Vargas.  document?id=ss18-006.



Adriani, N. and A. C. Kruijt. 1950. Bare’E-Speaking Toradja Of Central Celebes (The East Toradja): Vols 1-3. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij.  document?id=og11-002

Baxter, P. T. W. and A. Butt. 1953. Azande, And Related Peoples Of The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan And Belgian Congo. London: International African Institute.  document?id=fo07-056.

Bullock, C. 1950. Mashona and the Matabele. Cape Town: Juta & Co.  document?id=fs05-007.

Cooper, J. M. and R. Flannery. 1957. Gros Ventres Of Montana: Part 2, Religion And Ritual. Washington: Catholic Univ. of America Press.  document?id=nq13-003.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1956. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  document?id=fj22-016.

Gelfand, M. and R. C. Tredgold. 1956. Medicine and Magic of the Mashona. Cape Town: Juta and Co.  document?id=fs05-008.

Hilger, M. I. 1957. Araucanian Child Life And Its Cultural Background. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.  document?id=sg04-010.

Holmberg, A. R. 1950. Nomads of The Long Bow: The Siriono Of Eastern Bolivia. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.  document?id=sf21-001.

Huntingford, G. W. B. 1955. Economic Life Of The Dorobo. Anthropos 50: 602-634.  document?id=fl20-006.

La Barre, W. 1951. Aymara Biologicals And Other Medicines. Journal Of American Folklore 1951:171-78.  document?id=sf05-006.

Lane, K. S. 1952. Montagnais Indians, 1600-1640. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 7: 1-62.  document?id=nh06-018.

Massé, H. and C. A. Messner. 1954. Persian Beliefs And Customs. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.  document?id=ma01-007.

Murphy, R. F. and B. H. Quain. 1955. Trumaí Indians Of Central Brazil. Locust Valley, N.Y.: J. J. Augustin.  document?id=sp23-001.

Oliver, D. L. 1955. Solomon Island Society: Kinship and Leadership Among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge: Harvard Universtiy Press.  document?id=on19-001.

Osgood, C. 1959. Ingalik Mental Culture. New Haven: Dept. of Anthropology, Yale Univ..  document?id=na08-003.

Pineda G. R. and S. J. Muirden. 1950. Aspects Of Magic In La Guajira. Revista Del Instituto Etnologico Nacional: [s.n.].  document?id=sc13-002.

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Schlippe, P. 1956. Shifting Cultivation In Africa: The Zande System Of Agriculture. London: Routledge &Paul.  document?id=fo07-060.

Taylor, D. M. 1951. Black Carib Of British Honduras. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.  document?id=sa12-007.

Wallace, E. and E. A. Hoebel. 1952. Comanches: Lords Of The South Plains. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.  document?id=no06-003.

Wallis, W. D., and R. S. Wallis. 1955. Micmac Indians Of Eastern Canada. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.  document?id=nj05-001.

Wilson, M. H. 1959. Communal Rituals Of The Nyakyusa. London: Oxford Univ. Press.  document?id=fn17-009.



Bodenstein, W. and O. F. Raum. 1960. Present Day Zulu Philosopher. Africa 30: 166-180.  document?id=fx20-027.

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Douglass, W. A. 1969. Death In Murelaga: Funerary Ritual In A Spanish Basque Village. Seattle: Univ. of Washington.  document?id=ex08-002.

Faron, L. C. 1964. Hawks Of The Sun: Mapuche Morality And Its Ritual Attributes. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press.  document?id=sg04-012.

Freedman, J. 1961. Iban Augury. In: B. Tot De Taal, ed., Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden, pp. 141-167.

Gelfand, M. and M. Hannan. 1967. African Witch: With Particular Reference to Witchcraft Beliefs and Practices Among the Shona of Rhodesia. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone.  document?id=fs05-012.

Gifford, E. W. 1965. Coast Yuki. Sacramento Anthropological Society, Sacramento State College, Sacramento.  document?id=ns30-003.

Kavvadias, G. V. and F. Schütze. 1965. Mediterranean Pastoral Nomads: The Sarakatsani Of Greece. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.  document?id=eh01-013.

Krige, E. J. 1965. Social System of the Zulus. Pietermaritzburgh: Shuter & Shooter.  document?id=fx20-001.

Loeb, E. M. 1962. Mentawei Social Organization. American Anthropologist 30: 408–33.  document?id=od09-005.

McClintock, W. 1968. Old North Trail: Or, Life, Legends And Religion Of The Blackfeet Indians. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.  document?id=nf06-004.

Munro, N., B. Z. Seligman, and H. Watanabe. 1963. Ainu Creed And Cult. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.  document?id=ab06-007.

Opler, C. and M. E. Opler. 1969. Apache Odyssey: A Journey Between Two Worlds. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  document?id=nt25-002.

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Shimony, A. 1961. Conservatism Among The Iroquois At The Six Nations Reserve. New Haven: Department of Anthropology, Yale Univ..  document?id=nm09-065.

Turnbull, C. M. 1965. Wayward Servants: The Two Worlds Of The African Pygmies. Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press.  document?id=fo04-002.



Beckwith, M. W. and K. Loumala. 1970. Hawaiian Mythology. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press.


Berglund, A. 1976. Zulu Thought-Patterns And Symbolism. Uppsala: Swedish Institute of Missionary Research.  document?id=fx20-008.

Bradfield, M. 1973. Natural History Of Associations: A Study In The Meaning Of Community. New York: International Universities Press.  document?id=nt09-048.

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Felger, R. and M. Moser 1973. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Gulf of California: Discovery of its Nutritional Value by the Seri Indians. Science 181:355-356.

Gelfand, M. and M. Hannan. 1977. Spiritual Beliefs Of The Shona: A Study Based On Field Work Among The East-Central Shona. Gwelo, Rhodesia: Mambo Press.  document?id=fs05-004.

Hickman, J. M. 1971. Aymara of Chinchera, Peru: Persistence And Change in a Bicultural Context. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms.  document?id=sf05-013.

Lévi-Strauss, C. 1973. From Honey To Ashes: Introduction to a Science Of Mythology 2. New York: Harper & Row.

MacDougall, R. D. 1974. Domestic Architecture Among The Kandyan Sinhalese. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. Microfilms.  document?id=ax04-008.

Mountain Horse, M. 1979. My People, The Bloods. Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute ; Blood Tribal Council.  document?id=nf06-064.

Nooy-Palm, H. 1979. Sa’Dan-Toraja: A Study Of Their Social Life And Religion. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.  document?id=og13-007.

Parsons, E. W. C. 1970. Mitla, Town Of The Souls And Other Zapoteco-Speaking Pueblos Of Oaxaca, Mexico. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.  document?id=nu44-003.

Raum, O. F. 1973. Social Functions Of Avoidances And Taboos Among The Zulu. Monographien Zur Völkerkunde. Berlin: de Gruyter.  document?id=fx20-015.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 1971. Amazonian Cosmos: The Sexual And Religious Symbolism Of The Tukano Indians. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.  document?id=sq19-008.

Taylor, R. B. 1979. Teotitlán Del Valle: A Typical Mesoamerican Community. Ann Arbor: Univ. Microfilms.  document?id=nu44-011.



Bhila, H. H. K. 1982. Trade And Politics In A Shona Kingdom: The Manyika And Their African And Portuguese Neighbors, 1575-1902. Longman: Harlow, Essex.  document?id=fs05-003.

Brambila, D.
1983. Diccionario Rarámuri-Castellano. Obra Nacional de la Buena Prensa, A.C., Mexico D.F.

Calame-Griaule, G. 1986. Words And The Dogon World. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.  document?id=fa16-010.

Carucci, L. M. 1985. Conceptions of Maturing and Dying in the ‘Middle of Heaven.’ Aging and its Transformations: Moving Toward Death in Pacific Societies. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of American.  document?id=or11-029.

Greenoak, F. 1981. All the Birds Of The Air: The Names, Lore And Literature Of British

Birds. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Hockings, P. 1980. Sex And Disease In A Mountain Community. Sahibabad, Distt. Ghaziabad: Vikas Publishing Pvt Ltd.  document?id=aw50-004.

Howard, J. H. and W. Lena. 1984. Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, And Religion. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.  document?id=nn16-002.

Merrill, W. L. 1988. Rarámuri Souls: Knowledge And Social Process In Northern Mexico. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.  document?id=nu33-014.

Murie, J. R. and D. R. Parks. 1989. Ceremonies Of The Pawnee. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press.  document?id=nq18-015.

Wilbert, J., K. Simoneau, and M. Bórmida.1989. Folk Literature of the Ayoreo Indians. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Pub.

Sandin, B., and C. Sather. 1980. Iban Adat And Augury. Penang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia for School of Comparative Social Sciences.  document?id=oc06-029.



Damon, F. H. 1990. From Muyuw to the Trobriands: Transformations along the Northern Side of the Kula Ring. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.  document?id=ol07-001.

Fabian, S. M. 1992. Space-Time of the Bororo of Brazil. Gainesville: Univ. Press of Florida.  document?id=sp08-010.

Forth, G.L. 1999. Supplementary notes on Nage bird classification and ethnoornithology. Anthropos 94(4-6): 568-574.

Galaty, J.G. 1998. The Maasai Ornithorium: Tropic Flights of Avian Imagination in Africa. Ethnology, 37(3): 227-238.

Hunn, E. S. 1991. Sahaptin Bird Classification. In Man and a Half; Essays in Pacific Anthropology and Ethnobiology in Honour of Ralph Bulmer, A. Pawley, ed., pp. 137-147. Auckland, N. Z.: The Polynesian Society.

Ichikawa, M. 1998. The Birds as Indicators of the Invisible World: Ethno-Ornithology of the Mbuti Hunter-Gatherers. African Study Monographs Supplementary Issue 25: 105-121.

Kizungu, B., Ntabaza, M. and Mburunge, M. 1998. Ethno-ornithology of the Tembo in Eastern DRC (former Zaire): Part One, Kalehe Zone. African Study Monographs, 19(2):103-113.

Liebenberg, L. 1990. The Art of Tracking: The Origin of Science. Claremont, S. A.: D. Philip.

Sieroszewski, W. 1993. Yakut: An Experiment In Ethnographic Research. Moskva: Assotsiatsiia Rossiiskaia Polit. Entsiklopediia.  document?id=rv02-001.

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Forth, G.L. 2004. Nage birds: Classification and symbolism among an Eastern Indonesian people. London: Routledge.

Miller, A. M., M. Chávez Ramírez, and A. Flores Díaz. 2003. Aves de la Sierra Tarahumara: Conocimiento Tradicional, Ecología y Conservación. Fuerza Ambiental: Chihuahua, México.

Rea, A.M. 2007. Wings in the Desert: A Folk Ornithology Of The Northern Pimans. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.



Agnihotri, S. and Si, A. 2012. Solega Ethno-ornithology. Journal of Ethnobiology 32(2): 185-211.

Beerden, K., 2013. Worlds Full Of Signs: Ancient Greek Divination In Context. Leiden: Brill.

Davis, H. and Van Eijk, J., 2014. Lillooet Bird Names. Anthropological Linguistics 56(1): 78-99.

De Niemeyer Cesarino, P. 2014. Multiple Biographies: Shamanism and Personhood Among the Marubo of Western Amazonia. In: S. Oakdale and M. Course, eds, Fluent Selves: Autobiography, Person, And History in Lowland South America. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, pp. 121-143.

Fowler, C., 2013. The Kasaga'yu: An Ethno-ornithology of the Cattail-Eater Northern Paiute People of Western Nevada. In: M. Quinlan and D. Lepofsky, eds, Explorations in Ethnobiology: The Legacy of Amadeo Rea. Society of Ethnobiology Contributions in Ethnobiology, pp. 154-178.

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Wyndham&Park_2018_BirdsAsSignifiersDataset_v.1.xlsx, by Felice Wyndham, Karen Park

Please cite this dataset as:  Wyndham, Felice S. and K.E. Park. 2018. Birds as Signifiers Dataset (Version 1 [or other number]). Retrieved from [date].


The citation for the full published article is:. Felice S. Wyndham & Karen E. Park. 2018. “Listen Carefully to the Voices of the Birds”: A Cross-Cultural Review of Birds as Signs. Journal of Ethnobiology 38(4): 533-549.​ The article is viewable (open access) at: Felice S. Wyndham, Karen E. Park "“Listen Carefully to the Voices of the Birds”: A Comparative Review of Birds as Signs," Journal of Ethnobiology, 38(4), 533-549, (21 December 2018)

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