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Cf. AndrÉ, Jacques, 1967. Les noms d'oiseaux en latin. Klinsieck, Paris.

Capponi, Filippo, 1979. Ornithologia latina. Istituto di Filologia Classica e Medievale, Univ. di Genoa.

acanthis,acanthyllis,acalanthis,acalanthus.- < gr.

acceia,aclua.- Woodcock, 193, < Ital.: Corsica acceghia.

accentor (in Isidore).- Undetermined.

accipiter,acceptor,auceptor.- Not a bird but a calque of Gr. okýpteros meaning "fast".


aedon < Gr.

afra avis, africana gallina.- Guinea Fowl

aygithus < Gr.

aegocephalos < Gr.

aegolios < Gr.

aesalon < Gr.

alauda.- < Gallo-romance, H. Marne alauda Sky Lark, 297. Adopted as a generic name for the Sky Lark.

alcedo < Gr. Alkydón, supposed to mean "sad singer" (kingfishers do not sing at all). See Juret, 1942: 236. This name is prob. the same as halkyon. Adopted as a generic name for the Kingfisher.

alcyon < Gr.

amma.- (Sofer, Gl. 17). Owl, < Ar. jamma, see No. 238, Span.

ampelion,apellion < Gr.

anas.- Canard, 40, < Ital.n. Retained as a sc. name for some ducks.

anasgermana.- Mallard, 40, a name used in Tuscany.

anataria.- Trad. of Gr. nettóphonos.

anaticula.- Trad. of Gr. nettarion.

anser.- Oie, 27, < Spanish or Basque ð5.9.2..- Adopted as a generic name for geese.

anthus < Gr.

apiastra.- < Ital. n.: Como apiaster Bee-eater. Adopted as its sc. name, Meropsapiaster.

apus < Gr.

aquila.- Eagle, < Ital. Adopted as a generic name for some eagles.

aquilabarbata.- Bearded Vulture, 200, < Ital.

ardea.- A name used in the Piedmont ardèa Héron, 118. Adopted in as a generic name for some herons.

ardiola.- Diminutive of ardea. Adopted in orn. as a name for a small heron Ardeolaralloides.

asterias < Gr.

astur.- From Prov. astour Goshawk, 224. Adopted in orn. in the composites Butastur,Haliastur, etc.

atricapilla.- Transl of Gr. melankóryphos. Adopted as a specific name for a warbler Sylviaatricapilla and a titmouse Parusatricapillus.

attagen < Gr.

auca.- < Prov. auca Goose, 27.

aucceptor = acceptor.

aucelle,aucellus.- < Prov. aucel "bird".

avis.- < Spanish. aves "birds"

avisafra (art.).- Guinea Fowl; see afra avis.

aviscarystia.- < Gr. karýstios which may not be a bird.

avisclivia.- Augural; appears to be the transl. of a Gr. name.

aviscircanea < Gr. kirkos.

avisDiomedia < Gr.

avisHercynia.- Perhaps the Waxwing, 329, Germ. böhmerlein.

avisincendaria.- Phoenix.

avisscythica.- Pheasant.

avistarda.- Erroneous interpretation of Spanish avetarda, 135 q.v. Adopted as a specific name for the Greta Bustard, Otistarda.

axio.- < Ital.: Campania ascio Long-eared Owl, 248.

barbarus < Ital. barbaraschio et var. Bee-eater, 265.

bavina = Ital. and Catalan gavina Gull, 90.

barbio.- Prob. Gr. bárbax.

bardala,bardea.- The synonym given korydallós does not prove anything. Korydallós is not the Skylark, 297, but the Crested Lark, 299. If the Lombard bardal "lark" has existed in the spoken language, it must be considered as the source of the written "Latin". Semantics ð260., French

bibiones.- See vipio.

boscas,boscis < Gr., not cognate to busciu a diving duck.

brenthos < Gr.

bubo.- Eagle Owl, 247. Prob. originating from the Mezzogiorno, Calabria being the only Romanic region where the form vûvu is attested, a Gr. influx. Adopted as a name for the Eagle Owl Bubobubo.

bubulare (in Philomela).- To hoot (owl) ð5.26.2..

bufo.- Grand-duc, 247 < Pisano bufo (a Phocean influx, Gr. boûpho,boûphos).

buteo.- Buzzard, 211, < Gallo-rom., Gascony bouté. Adopted as a sc. name for the Buzzard Buteobuteo.

butio.- Bittern, 125, < Gallo-rom. butor.

butire (in Philomela).- To cry (Buzzard) ð5.22.2. (prob. formed after buteo).

calandra.- Skylark, 297, < Ital. calandra; it is unnecessary to have recourse to Gr. Adopted as a name for a lark Melanocoryphacalandra.

caliandra.- "Wig", not a bird name.

capo,capus.- Cock, not "chapon", < Ital. q.v. 2.

caprimulgus.- Nightjar, 251, < Daco-Rom. caprimulg. Adopted as a generic name for some nightjars Caprimulgus.

capys.- A hawk ð8.1..

cardellus,cardella,cardelis,carduelis.- Goldfinch, 415, < Ital. Roma, Nap. cardello. Adopted as a name for the Goldfinch Cardueliscarduelis.

carnotina.- Unidentifiable, prob. a corrupt word.

cassita.- A literary transl. of a name meaning "crested".

cataractès < Gr.

catta.- Not identifiable.

cauannus.- < Gallo-rom. caouan Wood Owl, 239.

caudatremula.- < Ital. coditremola Wagtail, 313.

cebena.- Unidentifiable.

cela (in Aelianus) = Ital. cetra "Spoonbill", 130.

cenchris < Gr.

cenalapix < Gr. chènalopèx.

cerceris < Gr. kerkèris.

cerritus.- Unidentifiable. There are many possibilities, see the acoustic base cerr-ð5.2.1..

ceyx < Gr.

charadrius,chaladrio < Gr.

chelidon < Gr.

chenalopex,cenalapix < Gr.

cheneros < Gr. chèn.

chloreus < Gr.

chlorion < Gr.

cicinus.- Cygne, 25, < Ital.: Apuglie cicene.

cicirrus < Gr. kíkkiros.

cicisa.- Undetermined. The Low Lat. cicisa is attributed to the Swallow, 316; see Ital. cizila et var.

ciconia.- Stork, 127, < Ital. cicogna et var.

ciconiacrotalistria (Petronius 55: 6), < Gr. ð5.2.49..

ciculus.- Ccukoo, 261. Cículo is attested in Italian a Perugia, but since Isidore says that this name is Spanish, it can be considered as an err. for cuculus, Aragon cûculo.

cicuma < Gr. kikumos.

cincitare.- To sing (of a bird, prob. the Chaffinch) ð5.3.2.6..

cinnamologus < Gr.

ciris < Gr. keiris.

cissa < Gr.

clangor.- "Cry of the eagle" = of the Buzzard, 211 ð5.12.4..

clágalopes.- A hawk.

coccus < Gallo-rom. cock.

coccyx < Gr.

cofanus.- Spoonbill ð4.4.13..

columba.-< Ital. columb et var. Pigeon, 255.

columbaagrestis.- Wild pigeon, Sard. colummaaresti, Gr. influx (peristeráágria, etc.).

columbasaxatilis.- Rock Dove, 254, < Ital. colombosassaiolo.

columbinus.- Domestic rock dove; Ven. colombin.

columbula.- Squab.

commagena.- "Goose from Commagen", a region in northern Syria. Species undetermined.

conea.- Stork, 127, in the Praeneste. Evidently a truncated word for ciconia, Sard. ciconea.

corax < Gr.

cordulus < Gr. korydálos.

cordus.- A corrupt word, see the preceding.

cornacula,cornicula.- Literary diminutive of cornacchia, widespr. in Italy.

cornix.- Crow, 281, Ital.n. cornáccia; adopted as a sc. name for the Hooded Crow, Corvuscoronecornix.

corvus.- Carrion Crow, 280, and Rook, 282, < Ital. corvo, widespr. Adopted as a generic name for crows.

corvusaquaticus.- Cormorant, 105 (not the Bald Ibis); artificial coining, see the following.

corvusmarinus.- Cormorant, 105, < Ital. corvomarino.

corvusnocturnus.- Transl. of Gr. nyktikórax.

corydalis,corydalus,coredallus,coredallu,coredulus,cordulus, codulus,cordus < Gr.

cottifos < Gr.

coturnix,cocturnix.- Quail, 23 (in Spain), but Red-legged Partridge, 17 en Italie; < Ital. Pav. cuturniS, Tosc. coturnice. Adopted as a name for the Quail Coturnixcoturnix.

croare (in Philomela).- To crow (of crows).

crocitare (in Philomela).- To crow (of crows) ð5.2.30..

crotolare (in Philomela).- To clapper (Stork) ð5.2.49..

cuculare (in Philomela).- < Gr. kikkabè, or Ital. cuccubè cry (of the Little Owl, 242).

cuculliata.- Crested Lark, 299; < Ital. (Cosenza).

criculus.- Cuckoo, 261, < Ital.: Tosc. Nap. cuculo.

cucus (Plante, Persa 177).- Cuckoo.

cucurrire (in Philomela).- To crow (of the cock).

cucutiata.- Crested Lark, 299, Hoopoe, 263, Lapwing, 158; < Cal. cucughiata et var. Crested Lark.

cybindis < Gr. kýmindis.

cychramus < Gr.

cycnus < Gr. kýknos.

cypselus < Gr.

dagnas < Gr. daknís.

dardanus.- "Bee-eater", see No. 265, Ital.; Ver. dárdano.

dieperdulus.- Heron, 118. Transl of Ital.: Ligur. perdigiorni.

dirae (Cic.).- Bird of ill omen ð5.1.4..

drensare.- To produce a noise (swan in flight) ð5.1.3..

drepanis < Gr.

drosca.- Thrush, Ital.n. droSc,drask Mistle Thrush, 340 ð5.1.7..

drosta (in Philomela) = drosca.

dryocolaptes < Gr.

elaphis (Oppian) < Gr.

epileus < Gr.

epops < Gr.

erithacus < Gr.

erodio,erodius < Gr.

eumorfus < Gr. mórphonos.

falco.- Hawk, < Ital. id. No. 223. Adopted as a generic name for falcons.

fassa,fatta < Gr.

feniculus < Gr. phoeníkouros. Adopted in orn. as a name for an African bird Phoeniculus.

ficedula,ficetula.- From Calab. ficètola, Sic. ficedula, which is a transl. of Gr. sykophágos (or var.) Oriole, 296, q.v. Adopted in orn. as a name for a flycatcher.

finix < Gr. phoenix.

foraminarius.- Transl. of Gr. troglodýtes understood as "frequenting holes".

frigulare (in Philomela).- To crow (of the Jay) ð5.4.2..

fringillus,fringilla,fringillo.- Chaffinch, 432, < Cal. fringillu. Adopted as a name for the Chaffinch, Fringilla.

fringuellus.- Chaffinch, 432, < Tosc. fringuello.

frisio.- Hawfinch, 431, < Ital.n. frisò et var.

fritilla.- Unidentifiable; syn. given: Gr. íynx. See ð5.5.1..

frondator.- Not a bird but the green tree frog which lives in the fronde (canopy) of trees. See also Schwentner, Zeits.Vergl.Sprachforsch. 71: 15-16, 1953-53. According to E. de Saint-Denis, Latomus 21: 255-262, frondator is not a bird but a labourer employed at thinning out the leaves.

fucillans.- A corrupt, unidentifiable word.

fulica.- Coot, 138, < Otranto fûlica.

furfurio.- Not a particular species but a "small bird" < Sard. furfur "collective for small birds", and also "sparrow".

gaia,gaius.- Jay, 290, Piem. gaia, Sic. gaio.

galbeolus.- Attributed to the Bee-eater, 265, but prob. identical to galbulus, Oriole, Ital.n. galbè.

galbus,galbulus,galgulus.- Oriole, 296, < Piem. galbè. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for a neotropical bird Galbula, as a specific name for a North American oriole Icterusgalbula and an Africain weaverbird Ploceusgalbula.

galerita,galeritus,galerius.- Crested Lark, 299. < Sic. gaddarita. Adopted as its generic name Galerida.

galgulus.- Evidently an err. for galbulus. The other conjectures (André, 1967: 80) are untenable.

gallina.- Poule, 2, < Ital. widespr..

gallinaafricana,gallinanumidica, Guinea Fowl, 6.

galbinafera.- Little Bustard, 135, Piedm. galinasarvaiga.

gallinarustica.- Syn. given: attagèn,pérdix. As it nests "only in the woods" it can be only the Woodcock, 193, see rustica.

gallinula, dimin. of gallina.

gallus.- Coq, 2, < Ital. gallo. Adopted as a sc. name.

ganta.- Wild goose, 27. Of Germ. origin. (Picardie gante, Austria ganter "goose").

garamas,garamantis < Gr.

gattula,gantula,cantula.- Corrupt, unrecognizable words; syn. given: attagèn.

gaulus.- Attributed to the Bee-eater, but prob. the Oriole, 296, cf. galbus et galbeolus. From Italian: Umbr. gaulo.

gavia.- Gull, 90 (coll.) < Spanish, Catalan gavia. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the divers, 63-65.

gersaula.- Heron, 118, < Span. garza,garcilla.

gingrire.- To cackle (goose, 27) ð5.16..

glandaria,picaglandaris.- Jay, 290, < Ital. ghiandaja. Adopted as a name for the Jay Garrulusglandarius.

glauca < Gr. glaux.

glocire,glocitare.- To cackle (hen) ð5.12.4..

gloctoro = glotorare.

glotorare (in Philomela).- To cackle (hen), to clapper (stork) ð5.12.4..

glottis < Gr.

gnesios < Gr. gnèsios (aetós), the true eagle aquilareale, Golden Eagle, 204.

gracillare (in Philomela) = gratilare.

graculus.- < Gr. graukalos, n.Gr. grákoulos. Adopted in orn. (on the base of later descriptions influenced by Ital. gracchio "crow") as a name for the Alpine Chough, Pyrrhocoraxgraculus.

gragala.- To cry like the Magpie.

gratilare, "gracillare".- To cackle (hen) ð5.2.49..

gravipes.- Calque of Gr. bradypetès.

gregariolus.- Corr. of regaliolus,regriolus (André).

gromphena (Pliny 30, cap. XV : 146).- A bird from Sardinia resembling a crane. The word appears to be borrowed from Gr. (not attested). De gromphaíno "to grunt", thus prob. the Flamingo.

gruire (in Philomela).- To cry (of the crane).

grus.- Grue, < Ital. gru widespr.

grusBalearica,grusminor.- Demoiselle Crane, 134, which is a North African species. So named prob. after an erroneous indication according to which it would be found in the Balearic Islands. Adopted as a generic name for the Crowned Crane Balearicapavonina, 134a.

gryps < Gr.

grypus < Gr.

gufo.-Hibou, Ital. gufo widespr.

haliaetus < Gr.

haron.- Heron, 118, < Gallo-rom. héron.

harpe < Gr.

himantopus < Gr.

hinnularia.- Black Kite, 215; Pliny's description is clear. The call of the Black Kite is a neighing, see Ital. nibbio and Romanian, 215.

hirundo.- Swallow, 316, < Gallo-rom., prob. Provençal. Adopted as a sc. name for the Swallow.

hirundina (250 A.D. Baruch VI : 21).- Hirundo + rondina (the form irond + suff. ina is nowhere attested).

iacolus.- Err. for jacobus.

ibis < Gr.

icterus < Gr.

inmusulus.- A bird of omen, unidentifiable. The name denotes something small, thus certainly not an eagle or vulture. The syn. órneonbasilikón points to the Wren, 406, and should prob. read musculus: cf. Spanish. ratilla, Prov. ratet, French ratelet,ratillon,petitrat, all meaning "small mouse".

iynx < Gr.

ixion.- Syn. given: heberà'àh Egyptian Vulture, 199.

jacobus, "iacolus".- Scops Owl, 250, < Sic. jacobu.

labois < Gr. lagos,lagois.

lagopus < Gr.

larus < Gr.

linosa,linofa,linusta.- These names suggest the Gallo-rom. linotte.

lipire (in Philomela).- To cry (of the Kite) ð5.12.5..

luscinia.- Nightingale, 337. Lambdacism attested in Romansh luschagna,lusegna. An accidental, local form, certainly not at the source of all the Romance names of the Nightingale ! Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the Nightingale.

lusciniola.- Nightingale, 337. Lambdacism attested en Romagna lusignòl. See roscinia. Retained as a sc. name for a reed warbler (= Acrocephalus).

melanaetos < Gr.

melancoryphus < Gr.

meleagris < Gr.

memnonis < Gr.

mergus,mergula,mergulus,mergunculus.- < Tosc. mergo various diving birds. The dimin. are literary only. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the mergansers Mergus.

merops < Gr.

merula,merulus.- Blackbird, 343, < Campania merula. Adopted as a name for the Blackbird, Turdusmerula.

miliaria.- Transl. of Gr. kenchros understood kenkros "mill". Adopted as a generic name for the Corn Bunting, Miliaria.

milvus,nilvus.- Black Kite, 215, < Gallo-rom. (Nice milu, etc.). Adopted as a generic name for the kites.

minurire (in Philomela).- Borrowing from Gr.; to sing (Swallow) ð5.20.2..

mitilans (in Philomela).- Has been translated as "to hum" but this word cannot relate to any acoustic base, and rather appears to be cognate to mitigo "to calm, diminish", or may be a corrupt word.

monedula.- Crow, 281 ð3.6.41.. Adopted as a name for the Jackdaw, Corvusmonedula.

morphnos < Gr.

motacilla.- Inversion of Provençal. quilhamota Wheatear, 349, q.v., literally "clod topper". The White Wagtail and the Wheatear have often been confused (see remarks and cross references under these two species, 349 and 313): both are black and white, wag their tail, and frequents tilled land. Gaza correctly gives the syn. albicula (Wheatear) for motacilla. Also to be noted, cilla never meant "tail" in latin, nothwithstanding the perorations in André, 1967: 108; the scientific "latin" albicilla,Bombycilla have been formed on motacilla through incorrect etymology (see No. 329, heading of species). Adopted in orn. as a name for the wagtail.

nession.- After the Gr. nessaetós.

nibulus.- Black Kite, 215, Bresc. nèbol.

nilvus, err. for milvus.

nisus < Gr.

noctua.- After the Gr. nykteris. Adopted as the specific name for the Little Owl Athenenoctua.

novaeavesturdorum (Pline in Thompson, p. 207).- Birds smaller than the pigeon. There is no reason to believe it is the Pallas' Sandgrouse as suggested by Thompson, an accidental and quite unknown species in Europe.

numidica.- After the Gr. Nómasornis Guinea Fowl, 6. Adopted as its sc. name Numidameleagris.

nycticorax < Gr.

oce, oces, oscen. Any bird whose song could be used as an omen ð13.12..

oenanthe < Gr.

olor.- Swan, 25. Its poetic usage indicate a foreign origin. ð3.1.57..- Adopted as the specific name for the swan Cygnusolor.

opilio < Gr. aepólios.

orchilus < Gr.

oripelargus < Gr.

ortygometra < Gr.

ortyx > Gr.

ossifrage,orsifragis.- Bearded Vulture, 200. A Tuscan name according to Pliny; should relate to Spanish (Ast.) franghueso, see No. 200, French.

oscen see oce.

palara.- (In Philomela) = pilaris.

palumba,palumbus,palumbes,palumbina,palumbulus,palumbaris.- Pigeon, 254 - 256; < Ital. Tosc., Umbr., Marche palumba. Adopted as a specific name for the Wood Pigeon Columbapalumbus.

pantagathus.- Transcription of non-attested Gr. name. A bird of omen.

paparus.- Gosling, < Campania pápara.

parra.- Barn Owl, see No. 238, Ital. No relation to parus; Spanish paro "titmouse" is a calque of Parus and not a local name.

parramaior (in the gloses, for parus).- Great Tit, 390. No relation to parra Barn Owl.

parramodica.- Blue Tit, 391.

parrus,parrula.- Great Tit, 390. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for American warblers Parula.

passer.- Sparrow, 410, < Ital. passero. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Sparrow.

passermarinus.- Ostrich, 1. Passer is a transl. of strouthos incorrectly understood "bird". See Gr. strouthokamèlos;marinus means "from overseas".

passermuralis.- Sparrow, 410, cf. Piedm. pasrad'muraje.

passersolitarius.- < Ital. widespr. passerasolitaria, Blue Rock Thrush, 345.

passercula,passerculus.- Literary dimin. of passer.

pavo,pava,pavus.- Peafowl, 4, < Spanish pavo. Retained as a name for the peafowl

pegasus.- Not a bird but a fabulous creature, < Gr. pegasos, see No. 270, Gr.

pelicanus.- 1. Pelican, 103, 104. < Gr.- 2. Spoonbill, 130, syn. truo < Ital. See No. 103, Ital. and No. 130, French and Ital. See also Porfyrionispelicanus.

pellicano.- Egyptian Vulture, 199, < prov. pélican. See No. 103, Ital.

penelops < Gr.

percnopterus < Gr.

percnus < Gr.

perdix.- Partridge, 16, 17, 22; < Gr., itself of Romance origin (Gallo-rom. or Ibero-rom.).

perseus < Gr. perseûs qui est un poisson.

phalacrocorax < Gr.

phalaris,phaleris < Gr.

phasianus < Gr.

philadelphus,philadelfus < Gr., var. of meladelphi (Tjerneld, 1948: 171).

philomela < Gr.

phoenicopterus < Gr.

phoenicurus < Gr.

phoenix < Gr.

pica.- Magpie, 288 (also attributed to the Jay, 290) < Ital.: Tosc. Campania id.

picamaritima.- Roller, 264 < Ital. Tosc., Campan. picamarina.

picavaria.- Great Spotted Woodpecker, 273 < Nissard picvaria.

picus.- Pic, 270 < Ital.n. pico.

picusferonius.- "Woodpecker of Feronia" on the model of picusmartius! Not a bird species.

picusmartius.- Great Spotted Woodpecker, 273, < Gasc. picmar,piguemarte.

pilaris,palaris,palar,palara,pelora,parala.- Erroneous transl. of Gr. trichas understood "hair".

pipare,pipiare.- To chirp (Kestrel, 234, hen, 2, etc.).

pipilo < Gr.

pipio.- Squab, 254, < Ital. Tosc. pippione "squab".

pipiunculus,titiunculus (hybride x tinnunculus).- Kestrel, 234 ð5.23.11. (The dimin. is literary). Pipiunculus is one of the rare Romance names mentioned in the Latin writings, that has not been attested in the local speeches.

plangus < Gr.

platalea,platea.- Spoonbill, 30, q.v.; of Gallo-rom. origin, Cat. bec-pla. Retained as a generic name for the Spoonbill Platalea.

plausitare (in Philomela).- "To coo" (pigeon) ð5.11.6..

plumbio.- Kingfisher, 267, < Ital.n. plombin et var.

porfyriornis pelicanus, porphyrionem pellicanum (Gloses).-Given that pelicanus (q.v.) is a name for birds with a crest on the nape, like the Spoonbill, and that porphyrio applies to birds with a metallic copper-coloured plumage, porphyrio pelicanus is a fitting description of the Hermit Ibis Geronticus eremita, 131, a copper-coloured, crested wader-like species.

porphyrio < Gr.

procne < Gr.

psittacus,siptace,siptacus < Gr.

pugio.- Crested Lark, 299, from its pointed crest ð270., French. See remark sub pipiunculus.

pullicenus.- Chicken, 2, < Sic. pullicinu.

pullus.- Young bird or animal, chicken, < Ital. pollo.

pulpare (in Philomela).- "To cry (of the vulture)" = flutter (of the Kestrel) ð6.2.22..

pumplio.- Appears to be a corr. of a Gr. name rather than of plumbio, given that the list of Polemius Silvius comprises only Gr. names: feniculus,cordus,pumplio,scopis. The fact that pumplio is listed after cordus (Crested Lark ?) leads one to assume it could be the Hoopoe, see ð4.5.14.2..

pupillare (in Philomela).- "To cry (of the peafowl)". This definition is erroneous; it describes the song of the Hoopoe (also a crested bird), see its names, No. 253.

pygargus < Gr.

pyrallis,pýrrhias (Oppianus), pýrrha (Aelianus) < Gr.

pyrrhocorax < Gr.

quaquila,quacula.- Quail, 23, < Ital. Corsica quaqualè.

quaquarra.- Quail, 23, < Abruz. quaqueraquá.

querquedula.- Garganey, 23. Borrowed from Gr. as clearly indicated by Varron where the name appears for the first time. The Gr. kerkithalís "erodiós" in Hesychius is prob. an err. attribution. Adopted as a name for the Garganey Anasquerquedula.

quisquilla.- A fish. If a bird name, it can only apply to the Quail, 23. "Octo palustres quisquillas" refers to the fish, not to the bird. The Prov. cascalha is the nearest form (literary Prov. quisquila is a calque of the Lat.).

regulus,regaliolus,regariolus,gregariolus.- Wren, 406 (not the Goldcrest), transl. of one of its Romance names. Regulus was applied by Cuvier to the Goldcrest because of its crest and small size.

rexavium.- Like the preceding.

rhinocorax < Gr.

riparia,ripariola,hirundoriparia.- Sand Martin, 320; transl. of one of its Romance names.

roscinia.- Nightingale, 337, < Lombard. rossignö. It is the normal form, not a dissimilation of lusciniola ! See ð3.2.53..

rustica,rusticula,gallinarustica.- Woodcock, 193, as suggested by the synonymy acceia,rustica,scolopax. This epithet given the meaning "of the field" does not fit the Woodcock, an essentially wood inhabiting species. A chromatic origin (Engl. rusty, etc. ð3.2.53.) is more logical. Retained in orn. as a name for the Woodcock Scolopaxrusticola.

sanqualis. Synonym given: ossifragus, that cannot be considered with certainty to be the Bearded Vulture, given the confusion existing as to the attribution of this name, attributed, besides the Bearded Vulture, to the Sea Eagle, the Egyptian Vulture and the Osprey. (See No. 200, French). In England, where the Bearded Vulture has never existed, osprey is attributed to Pandion halietus. Now, it is precisely to the Osprey that sangual is given in local Argentine speech [José A. Pereyra, Avifauna Argentina, ElHornero 9: 213, 1950 (Buenos Aires)]. The mystique around this ornithonym denotes a foreign origin which can be found in zanga a Basque name for the Gannet, 108, a characteristic diving bird, as is the Osprey when catching fish. Thus, the semantics of zanga,sangual and sangualis is "the diver", see ð10.15..

sarpa,sarapa.- Heron, 118 < Prov. serpatié.

saurix see sorix.

saxamerulus.- Transl. of Gr. petrokóssyphos.

scolopax < Gr.

scops,scopis < Gr.

screo.- A hawk. Of acoustic origin ð5.2.9. et seq.

seleucis < Gr.

senator.- The given synonymy places this name between ciris and fringuellus; it is very likely to be the Prov. seni, Serin, 418. Retained in orn. as a name for a shrike, Laniussenator, 327, without any particular reason since the name was not identified.

siptace,siptacus = psittacus.

siren < Gr.

soccitare (Suetonio, Fragm. 161).- To sing (of the thrush) ð5.3.2.1..

sorix,saurix,surex,soricarius.- The Long-eared Owl, 248 (not the Eagle Owl who does not usually hunt mice; the syn. bubo may also be a local name for the Long-eared Owl); < Cat. soriguer. (These names have also been discussed in Glotta 47: 266-279, 1969).

spinturnix,spinturnicium < Gr. spintharis.

strix,striga < Gr.

strophilos < Gr.

struthocamelus,strutianus < Gr.

strophilos < Gr.

sturnellus.- Starling, 293 < Ital.: Ligur. sturnello. Retained as a generic name for an American bird Sturnella.

sturnus.- Starling, 293 < Ital.: Campania sturno. Retained as a sc. name for this bird.

stymphalis < Gr.

subis,subter, see supter.

suessalus.- < Ital.: Marche svasso Grebe, 70.

sulpicia.- Prob. < Gr. sálpynx.

supter,subter,subis.- A "hawk", prob. the Barn Owl, 238 ð5.3.9.. Adopted as a name for an American swallow Prognesubis.

surnia,syrnium (Low Lat.).- < Cf. Gallo-rom. sourne Barn Owl, 238 q.v.

tantalus.- A name for the heron according to Isidore of Sevilla ð6.3.7..- Has been used in orn. as a name for a stork Tantalus (= Mycteriaibis).

tarax.- Corr. of Gr. tetrax.

taurus.- Bittern, 125. So called in Arles according to Pliny; Cat. toro.

teretizare (in Philomela).- To chirp (of birds) ð5.1.4..

terraneola.- < Ital. Campania terragnola Skylark, 297.

teta = titus.

tetrao < Gr.

tetrax,tarax < Gr.

tetrinnire.- To cackle (of geese) or crackle (Garganey) ð5.1.10..

tinnunculus.- Kestrel, 234 ð5.3.2.6..

titiare.- To chirp.

titus,teta.- < Sard. tidû, Wood Pigeon, 255, see ð5.29.1..

toda,todus,todius,todinus.- "Toda est avis... quare semper est in motu, unde todius (al. todinus) dicitur ille qui velociter todet et movetur ad modum todae, et todere, moveri et tremere ad modum todae" (Festus); < Gallo-rom.: Corrèze toutu, Cat. totineta wagtail, 313, see ð6.3.6..

tonsilla.- Transl. of Gr. keiris understood keiro "tondre".

tragopan < Gr.

triorchis < Gr.

trissare (in Philomela).- To cry (of the "swallow" = Swift, 321), from Gr. trizoð5.18..

tritinnire (in Philomela).- To cry (of the "swallow" = Swift, 321) ð5.1.13..

trochilus < Gr.

trucilare = trutilare.

truo.- < Gallo-rom.: French truelle, Basque trulla Spoonbill (not "pelican"); for the cause of confusion between these two species, see No. 130, French.

trygon,trigron < Gr.

tuco,tucus.- Err. for cuco "cuckoo", < Span. cuco.

tudos,tudeculus.- Synonym given: eríthakos. From Gallo-rom.: Yonne dôdé (or Spanish tontito) Robin, 335. (Gr. dandalos) ð4.1.19.2. et

turdela.- Mistle Thrush, 340, < Ital. Tosc. turdela (Isidore has not reported only Spanish names).

turdelix.- Mistle Thrush, 340, < Sic., Cal. turdulice ("magpie"is an err. attribution).

turdus.- Song Thrush, 339 (and collective). < Ital. turdo,tordo,turdu.

tutubare.- To hoot (of the owl) ð5.29.1..

uluccus.- Wood Owl, 239, < Piedm. ulùc.

ulula.- Wood Owl, 239; a post-verbal (Walde-Hofmann) see Nos. 239 et 211, French.

upupa.- Hoopoe, 263, < Ital. Marche, Pad. ûpupa.

valeria.- Epithet for the eagle ("strong").

vatuita.- Crested Lark, 229, < Prov. bedouido.

verticeneger.- Transl. of Gr. melankóryphos.

vilio = vipio.

vibrissa.- Wagtail, 313. From "vibrate"; literary equivalent of toda, after todere,tremere, or after the Gr. seisopygis given as a synonym.

vinestris.- Transl. of Gr. ampelion.

vipio,vibio,viviones,bibiones.- In a list of birds from the Balearic Islands. Vipio is not given as a syn. of grusbalearica. There is no reason to attribute this name to the Demoiselle Crane. Vipio is a crested, noisy bird, certainly the Lapwing, 158, French vipið5.1.15.3. and for bibionesð5.23.9..

vireo.- Oriole, 296, < Spanish. víreo,viréo which is purely imitative and has no relation to Lat. vireo "to be green" (the Oriole is not green).

vitiparrarum (in genere).- Unidentifiable. A bird of omen. Cuvier attributed this name to the Penduline Tit, not after parra, but after the description of the nest by Aristote: "It is weaved like a ball of flax with a small entrance". Several birds build a globular nest. A relation to vitis must also be rejected; a relation to vitium "vice" and, in Cicero filius, "bad omen", appears logical (Ribezzo, quoted by André).

viviones, see vipio.

voltur,voltusius.- Vulture (collective) < Romanian vultur.

volucris.- Everything that flies ð6.2.2..

zinzilulare (in Philomela).- To chirp, < Daco-rom. ð5.3.2.3..

zinzinulare.- To chirp ð5.3.2.3..

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