Previous PageNext Page


Cf. Thompson, 1936, A glossary of Greek birds, for full details.

adonèis (e chelidon). Not a bird name; adonis is a sea fish, and so is chelidon.

adryphos.- See arxiphos

aèdon,aèdo.- Nightingaleð5.18.5..- Adopted as a sc. name in Aedonfamiliaris (today Erythropygiagalactotes, 355 and Troglodytesaedon).

aegoliós,aigolios.- An owl, prob. the Wood Owl, 239 ð5.10.8.. Adopted as a sc. name for an owl Aegoliusfunereus.

aeiskops = skops

aellós.- Unidentified; cf. aella "storm". Appears to be a transl. of the daco-romanian. furtunar "storm" and "petrel". (Aelló "harpaye" according Frisk, 1960).

aepólios.-Aepólos "goatherd" suggests wagtail, 313; perhaps the translation of a foreign name.

aepto.-Nestling. Name formed with the privative prefix a + pteron "aile".

aerithakós = eríthakos

aerokorax,aerokordax.- A fabulous bird.

aérops = merops

aesakos, see aísakos

aetós,aietós.- Eagle ð6.4.1..- In orn., adopted in numerous coumpound names such as chrysaetos,Spizaetos etc.

aglasos.- A borrowing from a Romance speech, cf. Gascony ayglas Buse, 211.

agly.- Swan. "hypó Skython" according to Hesychius; must be interpreted "Scot" not "Scyth" ð3.1.54..

agór.- "Bird of prey", is rather Hebr. agur Crane.

agrakómas.- Unidentified.

agreus.- Hill Mynah (Southern Grackle), 295b.

ágriosalektryon.- "Grouse" (?), see alektrionaagrion.

aivetós,aifetós.- Eagle ð6.1..

aigialitès.- From aigialós "shore". Adopted as a sc. name for a sandpiper Aegialitis = Charadrius.

aigínthos = aigíthalos

aigipops = aigypiós

aigíthalos,aigíphalos,aigoképhalos,aigíthos,aigíothos, aigínthos.- Forms of aigothèlas (q.v.) Nightjar. Erroneously attributed to the titmouse. Aristotle and Pliny state that aigíthos limps, a clear allusion to the well-known behaviour of the Nightjar when feigning injury at the approach of an intruder. Pliny classifies it with the hawks with which the Nightjar superficially resembles. Aigíthalos has been adopted in orn. as a sc. for the Long-tailed Tit, 398.

aigoképhalos. Mentioned with glaux. A form of aigíphalos = aigíthalos Nightjar which like glaux is a nocturnal bird. Has been adopted in orn. as a name for a godwit Aigocephalus (= Limosa).

aigolios, see aegoliós

aigothèlas.- Nightjar, 251, literally "goat sucker". Adopted in orn. for a genus of Asiatic nocturnal bird. For other forms, see aigíthalos.

aigypiós;aigípops (Maced.), gyps and perhaps argiopous, argípous which appear to be corruptions or wrong readings (but certainly not for argos + pous and still less aigi + pesso "to digest goats"!).Vulture. A name still in use in Modern Greek agioûpa, see 197, alb. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the Cinereous Vulture Aegypiusmonachus, 198.

aísakos. Unidentified. Signifies also "stick"; perhaps an allusion to the long legs of waders. Adopted as a sc. name for a wader Esacus (= Burhinus).

aisálon,aesálon.- A bird of prey. Prob. from aísso "to dash suddenly". Retainedd in orn. As a name for a falcon Falco columbariusaesalon.

aithyia,eutheia.- A water bird, Modern Gr. etha,efia Tufted duck, 48 ð3.3.1.. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the diving ducks Aythya.

aix.- Great Crested Grebe, 66, reg. French cabréla, reg. Ital. capriola, the call of which recalls a bleating. Attributed in orn. to a duck (Aixsponsa), perhaps because of the resemblance of the word to aithyia.

akanthís,akalanthís,akalanthós,akalantheia,akkalansír, akanthyllís,akanthalís.- Goldfinch, 415. From akanthe "thistle". Acanthis has been adopted as a name for the Linnet, 422 and acanthilis for a bird-of-paradise Seleucidisacanthilis.

ákmon.- A borrowing from Ancient Eg.ákhom,akhmu = Arabic rakham Egyptian Vulture, 199.

aktitès.- An inhabitant of sea shores. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Common Sandpiper Actitishypoleucos (= Tringah., 178).

akylás. - From Romance acula,aquila. See however the next word.

akyléès aètos. Eagle. The Greek seem to have confused akyléès with Lat. aculeus a sting. See Thompson, p. 53 sub antar.

aléktor (cock), alktoris (hen), alektryon,alektrónos, alektriana,alektoriskos (young cock), alektorideus (chicken).- According to G. H. Macurdy Class.Phil. 3: 310-311 "the name Aléktor belongs in a group of apotropic deities, such as Alexanor and Alexandros..." Sheer conjecture. The presence of this name in Caucasian languages (lezg. alek,xalekto etc. ð5.12.1.) clearly indicate that the Greek word was borrowed from one of those languages (as well as Pahlevi alka) and also glaux,epops, arezifia.Alektor has been adopted as a name for a neotropical gallinaceous bird Craxalector and Alectoris, for a genus of partridges, No. 17.

alektryonapodos.- A rooster that ceased to sing (privative prefix a(p) + odè song).

alektrionaagrion.- Hoopoe, 263, cf. Modern Greek agriospetinos.

alektriónonodè,alektryophonia.- Song of the rooster.

alkyon,alkyonis;aykyón Crête. A seabird. There has been confusion between this species and halkyon (q.v.) the Kingfisher. Alkyon is still used(Greek influx) in Sicily as alcuni gull, 81, in Catalan as alcio "tern", inProvençal as alcyon id., and in Basque as alkoi id.. For semantics, see ð5.12.1..

ámallospérdix. Epithet ("soft") recalling asthenes ("feeble") epithet of boudýtès. Reason unknown.

ampelís,ampelion.- Modern Greek ampelouriós Black-headed Bunting, 440; means "of the vineyards". Ampelis has been used as a for the Waxwing, 329 (= Bombycilla) and Ampelion for a neotropical species.

amángès,anákès.- An Indian bird similar to the Starling.

anemodromos.- "A fabulous bird" = Kestrel, 234.

angylas (Byz. Gr.).- Cf. aglasos and akyleus.

anópaia.- A borrowing to Hebr. anapha Heron, 118.

antaraetós.- Not a bird (cf. Thompson).

anthos.-A literary name, translation of phloros (=chloris).Cf. Low Lat. anthus s. Florus. Anthos and Hippodameia were killed by their father's horses and changed into birds that imitated the neighing of a horse. Now the Green Woodpecker, 270, is well known from its neighing call (see the Greek, Spanish, English names); cf. hippa hereafter, and see also chloris. There is no reason to believe that it could also be a heron. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the pipits Anthus, 305-310.

antipsichoi = Mémnonesorníthes (fabulous)

apaphós = epops

apous.- Swift, 321, for which the name has been adopted in orn. Apus. An allusion to its tiny legs..

árakos.- An Etruscan or Tuscan name, cf. Etr. harog or arakh "a hawk" and Macedonian arakit "to ravish" ð223., French

aramos (hapax).- A heron, prob. the Purple Heron, 119. Thompson compares this name to Ital. airone, and supposes it may be corrupt. However cf. Romanian arama "rufous" ð3.2.55.. Adopted in orn. as a name for a neotropical bird Aramusguarauna.

ardeólè (Byz.).- A borrowing from Latin writings ardeola.

ardýphios = arxiphos

arètiádesorníthes.- See stymphalídesórnithes

argiópus,argípous, see aigypiós.

arneutèr.- "Formerly thought to mean a diving bird...: more probably only a professional diver" Thompson (< Lat. urinator). It is also possible that the name means simply "shepherd" (arneios = lamb).

arxiphos,ardýphios.- An eagle from Persia ð12.1..

asio.- Owl, see No. 248, Ital. Adopted in orn. as a name for some owls.

askálaphos.- Unidentified; prob. the same as askalopas. Adopted as a name for the Eagle Owl Bubobuboascalaphus.

askalopas,askólopas.- Woodcock ð193., Ital., for which the name has been adopted, Scolopax.

aspárandos.- Not an Ancient Greek name but a graph (in Ducange) of Mod. Gr. atsárantos Greenfinch, 416.

asthenes.- An epithet of boudýtès. Cf. ámallos. Adopted in orn. as a name for a genus of neotropical bird.

aster, see astragalinos

asterías.- 1. A hawk. Prob. a calque of Romance astor. 2. Erodios asterías, cf. Mod. Gr.. sterióni Bittern (?), 125, q.v.

astragalínos,tragodínas,stragalínos.-Goldfinch, see No. 415, sbc. Has been adopted as a generic name for a North American goldfinch Astragalinus (= Carduelis).

astralósopsarós (Thessaly).- Starling, 293. A borrowing from Romance (Ital. storlo) is more prob. than < astèr "star" which is not descriptive of the bird.

attagás,attagèn,attavygás,tagèn,tagènarion.- Francolin, 15, cf. Mod. Gr. attaginari and ð3.3.7..

atzèimoí,atseimoí,atsenoí,asbènoíornithes.- Perhaps an epithet signifying "from Pontus-Euxinus".

baíbyx,baíbykos.- Cf. Romanian babi Pelican 103.

baïèth.- Egyptian name for a hawk (ar. bàz).

bárbax.- A hawk, cf. Mod. Gr. varváki Buzzard, 211.

barítès.- Unidentified.

basileûs,basilískos.- Cf. Mod. Gr. basileûs Wren, 406.

balílissa.- Unditified (see F. Robert, 1911, p. 97).

baskás, see boskás.

báskillos.- Magpie, 288; Thompson suggests Ital. badascule.

batís.- "A worm-eating bird", unidentified. May not be a bird name, but rather "ray" (fish) and "saltwort", and means "spiny"; batós = ronce. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some African flycatchers.

batyrrègálè,bothy-règalè (Lydian).- Iktinos, Milan, 215, 216. Calque of a foreign name ð5.22.2.. The name of the North Amercian Red-tailed Hawk Buteoregalis is inspired from the Greek.

beirax,beírakes = hiérax

bellounès (Lakon.).- Triórchès, prob. an epithet (bellicous).

bíttakos = psíttakos

bokkalis,bokhalis,bárkalis = boukolínè

bomolóchos.-Koloiósomikrós; the word means "buffoon" and does not seem to be a bird name.

boskás,baskás,boskis,phaskás.- Domestic duck, 40. Cf. bosko "to feed, take care", boskádios "fed, fattened (ortalis,phasianos,chèn)" and chènoboskeia "an establishment where geese are raised (fattened)". Has been used in orn. as a name for the Mallard, Anasboschas (= A. platyrhynchos).

botalis = boûtalis

boubon.- Eagle Owl, 247, cf. Mod. Gr. voûvos, Calabria buffone. See also boûphos.

boudýtes.- Wagtail, 313, see boukolínè. has been used in orn. as a name for the wagtail, Budytes (= Motacilla).

boûkeros.- Cattle Egret, 122, < ar. buqir.

boukolínè,bokkalis,bokhalis,bárkalis.- Wagtail, 313 ("of the cattle").

boûlis.- A divinity changed into phoynx.

boûphos.- Eagle Owl, 247, Mod. Gr. id.

boûtalis.- Thought to be the nightingale in Aesop's Fables, but it is prob. the wagtail, 313 (boutès "cowhand"). Has been used in orn. as a name for the Spotted Flycatcher Butalis (=Muscicapa).

boýnx,phoyx,phoynx.- A diving bird (aithyia) ð10.1.3.. Adopted as a sc. name in the compound Melanophoyx.

bradypetès,bradýpous.- Translation of Lat. avistarda (Thompson) understood « late »

brénthos.- 1. A bird that sings well and lives in mountain forests. 2. A seabird ð5.6.7..

brètos,alektryoneniaûsios.- One year-old cock.

bruas,bruïs = buas

brýsis.- A crow. Cf. Romanian brez "variegated", barzà Hoode Crow, 281 and ð3.2.33..

bûas,brûas,bûza,brûïs. An owl, cf. Arm. bu,buech, Spanish. buho Eagle Owl, 247.

bûzo.- To call like an Eagle Owl (bûas,bûza).

býssa,býsa,bysastría.- A water bird according to Antoninus ð10.1.3..

býtthan.- Not a bird, see Thompson.

chalandros,chaladros (Epicarme) = kálandros.

chalkidikès,chalkokós.- A variety of domestic fowl (the races close to the wild stock are often copper-coloured) ð3.1.48..

chalkís.- 1. Glossy Ibis, 131, Mod. Gr. chalkókottað3.1.48..- 2. Roller, 264, Mod. Gr. chalkokoroni.

chamaitypos.- Epithet for a hawk.

charadriós.- A shorebird, either the Common Sandpiper, 178 (wags its tail), or the wagtail, 313, which is also a shorebird; < charadrio "to agitate". Cf. French guignette, Ital. tòtano (178) and Calabria: Bova kharadrío Kestrel, 234, q.v. (Rohlfs, 1964 and 1966-67) ð6.3.1.. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some shorebirds Charadrius.

chelidon,cheleár.- Swallow (see Thompson for details) ð3.1.46.. The name is used in orn. in the compounds Pseudochelidon,Hydrochelidon,Chelidoptera etc., and Delichon (intentional metathesis).

chelonophágos.- A large hawk: The Bearded Vulture has been observed breaking tortoise shells, as it does with bones. Cf. Mod. Gr.. chelonifagi, 200.

chèn.- Goose, 27 ð5.8.2.. Adopted in orn. for a genus of goose Chen.

chènalopex,chènalops.- Attributed to the Egyptian Goose, 38, but should rather be the ruddy Shelduck, 37, which breeds in Greece. Cf. Ital. volpóca, the Common Shelduck, 36. This name appears to refer to the voice of this duck, a call that resembles the barking of a fox (rather than from its habit of breeding earth hollows); cf. Azeri it-kas "dog-goose". Chènalopex, altered in Alopochen and adopted as a sc. name for the Egyptian Goose, 38.

chennion.- "Egyptian quail" = Egyptian name for the Quail.

chènoskopos.- A large hawk.

chloreus = chloris according to Gessner, Belon etc.

chloríon,chloreion.- Oriole, 296, Mod. Gr.. floriós.

chloris,chloreis,phloros.- 1. Ornisskolèkophágos (larvae eater) therefore not the Greenfinch which is a seed eater, but the Green Woodpecker, 270; its other name phlóros understood "flower" has been translated by anthos, q.v. 2. The Greenfinch, 416, Mod. Gr. chlorída, floros etc. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Greenfinch Carduelis chloris.

chrysaetós.- An "eagle", in orn. attributed to the Golden Eagle, 204, which is certainly not characterized by a "golden" colour (it appears black). The rufous feathers of the nape are visible only at very close range and impossible to see with the naked eye, and, moreover, by no means deserve the epithet "golden". Chrysaetós, so spelled as a result of folk etymology, is of Illyrian origin (cf. Serbocr. orovkrstaS, Eagle, 204, i.e. "the cruising eagle") ð4.2.10.. Arbitrarily adopted in orn. as a name for the Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos. "Golden Eagle" is a bookish translation of chrysaetos.

chrysomètris.- Goldfinch, 415. Has been used in orn. as a name for the Siskin Chrysomitris (= Carduelis).

chrysópteronptènón.- The Goldfinch, 415, with golden wings.

chthamaloptètès.- "Flying near the ground"; epithet for a hawk.

chyrrhabos.- A kind of bird according to Hesychius.

daknís.- Cf. Egyptian Arabic daqnàs and Mod. Gr. dakanýra Pie-grièche, 324, q.v. Adopted in orn. for a neotropical bird Dacniscayana. Related to dakno to bite ? Cf. smárdikon.

dándalos.- Robin, 335 ð4.1.19.3..

dárda,mélissa.- (Hesychius, see Codex Marcianus). See No. 265, Ital.

dasýpouschelidóneias.- House Martin, 319

daulís.- In mythology only: bird of Daulis = Philomela, queen of Daulis (a territory).

dígères = dírèges, see drèges.

deírès, pl. deírètes.- A name for the sparrow at Elis; see drèges.

dendrokoláptès = dryokoláptès.- Adopted in orn. as a name for a woodpecker Dendrocolaptes (= Picoides).

díkairon,díkaion.- Not a bird but the dung beetle (Thompson).

díktys (oíktinos).- Doubtful as a bird name (Thompson); it is the fish taken with the net (diktyon "net").

Diomèdeioiornithes.- Seabirds of the genus Puffinus Nos. 111, 112, Breeding on the Diomedes Islands, today the Isole dei Tremiti, facing the Apuglian coast. Diomedea has been adopted as a generic name for some albatrosses, and as a specific name for a petrel Puffinusdiomedea, 112.

dirèges = drèges.

dodoni,dodonaionphasí.- "Pigeons of Dodona" ð5.29.1..

drakontís.- Fabulous bird.

drepanís.- Swift, 321, Romanian drepnéa q.v. Adopted as a sc. name for a hawaiian bird with a scythe-shaped bill, Drepanispacifica.

drè(g)esstrouthoí,dírèges,dígères,drikèai, drixstrouthos; see also deirès. Cf. Spanish. trigueiro Corn Bunting, 445 and ð5.2.55..

drix,drikèai, see drèges.

dryokoláptès,dryèkoláptès,drykoláptès,drykolaps, dryokópos,dryops,dendrokoláptès.- Woodpecker, 270; from dryos "oak" and kolapto "to excavate". Dryokoláptès has been adopted in orn. as a name for woodpeckers Dryocolaptes (= Picoides); dryokópos for the Black Woodpecker Dryocopusmartius,Colaptes for some American woodpeckers and Xiphocolaptes for som neotropical climbing birds.

dýptès,dýtinos.- Diving duck (Aithya) ð10.4.2.. Adopted in orn. as names for the penguins Eudyptes and Aptenodytes.

dýtinos see dyptès.

edolios,eidalís, ídalis.- Prob. has the meaning of "edible", Lat. edulis. Adopted in orn. as a name for an asiatic bird in the compound name Edolisoma (= Coracina).

èéropos = mérops.

èïkanósoalektryon.- From èos "dawn"; "cock that sings at dawn" (Thompson), cf. Zend parodars.

eidalís see edolios.

eiothás.- A domestic pigeon.

eirops = mérops.

elaiós.- Equivalent of sykalís.

elanos.- Kite (prob. a borrowing from Romance milano). Adopted as a sc. name for a hawk Elanuscaeruleus, 217.

elaphís.- A water bird, cf. Mod. Gr.. ofýia Cormorant, 105, q.v.

elasas.- "The hunter", a coining by Aristotles (Chantraine 2: 332).

eléa,eléas,eleía.- A reed warbler, 373. Prob. from helos "marais" (Chantraine 2: 334).

eleiós,leiós.- A kind of hawk ð5.24.1..

eleós.- Owl ð5.24.1..

ellópous,hellópous.- Perhaps not a bird.

emónion.- Unidentified, see hèmiónion.

enthýskosoasphalós.- Unidentified.

epiza (Cyprus) = spiza.

epilaïs = hypolaïs.

epileios,epíleos.- A hawk, cf. Slavic piljug etc. Buzzard, 211, Kite, 215 ð5.23.15..

epólios, see aepólios.

epops,epopos,epopa,epoxis.- Hoopoe, 263, cf. Mod. Gr. oupoupas, Arm.opop. No relation to Egyptian Apopis "sun". Epops has been adopted as a name for the Hoopoe, Upupaepops.

èrisálpinx.- Unidentified.

eríthakos,erytheûs,erýthylos.- Robin, 335, and sometimes Bullfinch, 430. Adopted as a sc. name for the Robin Erithacusrubecula, and as specific names various birds: Pyrrhula erythaca a bullfinch, Ceyx erithacus a kingfisher, and Psittacus erithacus a parrot.

erodios,erogás,rhodios.- 1. Stork; "nests on the roof of houses" (Cyranid.) ð3.2.52..- 2. Heron or a seabird (through confusion). Erodiosopellós Grey Heron. Adopted as a sc. name for a heron Ardeaherodias.

érops = mérops.

erythrópous.- A sandpiper with red legs, Tringatotanus, 174 and Tringaerythropus, 175. Also an epithet for peleia.

euboè.- Unidentified ð5.10.8..

eutheia = aithyia.

galatzó (kossyphos).- Blue Rock Thrush, 345 ð3.1.29..

gangraina (Medieval Gr.).- Bee-eater, 265; see ð5.2.25..

gagíla (byz.).- Magpie, 288 ð5.16..

garámantes.- Guinea Fowl, 6.

gausalítès.- An Indian bird.

geilos.- A seabird, prob. a gull ð5.10.7..

gélasos.- Hoopoe, 263 ð3.1.56..

géranos,gérèn.- Crane, 133, Mod. Gr. id..

gètauros (Medieval Gr.).- Bittern, 125; a wrong spelling for low Lat. botaurus; not "goitre".

génis,gnís.- Tuscan name for a "crane" (Hesych.); may represent Ital. gianna Héron, 119.

glápis, see thraupís.

glaûkion.- A duck. Has been used in orn. in the compound name Glaucionetta (= Bucephala).

glaux.- Owl ð5.12.4..- Adopted in orn. as a name for the Little Owl, Athenenoctuaglaux and in the compound name Glaucidium.

glottis.- Wryneck, 279, Mod. Gr. glossas.

gnáphalos.- Unidentified. It is either a bird the feathers of which were used to make pillows, or the Long-tailed Tit whose nest is profusely lined with feathers (gnáphalon = pillow flock).

goinéeskórakes.- Unidentified.

gólmis.- Not a bird (see Thompson).

gops (Maced.).- "Jackdaw" (= gyps ?).

gortyx = ortyx.

grápis = thraupís.

graukalos.- An ash-coloured bird. Cf. Mod. Gr. grákulos Rollier, 264 ð5.2.34.. Has been used in orn. for an Asiatic bird Graucalus (= Coracina).

grypái, see gryphos.

grypaietos = gypaietos.

gryphos,gryps.- Vulture, see No. 197, Ital. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Andean Condor Vulturgryphus.

gýgès.- A legendary bird, perhaps simply "from Gygès" in Lydia. Adopted in orn. for a genus of Pacific tern Gygisalba.

gypalektron.- Hoopoe, 263, literally "dishevelled cock" (Alb. gup "dishevelled", see No. 197, Alb.).

gypaietos,gyps, hypaietos,hypsiaietos,grypaietos.- Vulture, see No 197, Alb. Gypaietos has been adopted as a sc. name for the Bearded Vulture Gypaetusbarbatus, and Gyps for the Griffon Vulture, 197, q.v.

gyps, see preceeding name.

haimatópous.- Stilt, 156, from its blood-red legs; adopted in orn. as a generic name for the Oystercatcher Haematopusostralegus which also has red legs; see also himantopous.

haliáetos.- "Sea eagle" or "fishing eagle"; it was attributed now to the White-tailed Sea Eagle, 202, now to the Osprey, 203. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for the former, Haliaeetusalbicilla, or specific for the second Pandionhaliaetus.

haliápoda (tonkepphon).- A seabird.

halíbaptos,haliporphyrìs,lathyprophyrís, lasiporphyrís; other names for halkyon, by folk etym. (hal understood "sea").

halkyon.- Kingfisher and prob.also the Roller, 264, Mod. Gr. chalkokorone. The name has no relation to the sea but is a chromonym related to chalkosð3.1.48.. The legend according to which this bird nests on the sea was born, like many legends, from the folk etym. (wrong division of the word) hals "sea" and kyons "to conceive". See also alkyon. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some kingfishers, Halcyon, and as a specific name for an American kingfisher Cerylealcyon.

hárpè,hárpaz,hárpsos,harpeto.- Birds of prey ð223., French Adopted in orn. for a neotropical eagle Harpiaharpyja.

hásida,hásidon,asidon.- Borrowing from Hebr. Hasidàh, Stork, 127.

hèdýteraiaitrygónes.- Epithet seeming to relate to the softness of the dove's cooing.

hellópous, see ellópous.

helorios.- A water bird compared to krex; from helos "marsh", see eléa. Likened to Lat. olor by Thompsonsolely on the resemblance of the words.

hèmiónion,emónion.- Unidentified.

hérmakon.- Egyptian name for a hawk, heru-em-aakhuti (Thompson).

hierako-boskós.- Falconer.

hierax,irax,irèx,hirèx.- Hawk, 224, 225; ð3.2.26..

himantopus.- Literally "strap leg"; Stilt, 156. Adopted in orn. as a name for this bird.

hippalektryon.- A fabulous creature ð5.15.3..

hippárion.- A bird resembling chènalopexð5.15.3.

hippè,hippa, hipta,hitta,ippè,ipnè. A bird that neighs like a horse, the Green Woodpecker, 270, whose names often relate to the neighing of a horse, cf. the English and Spanish names. See also anthos.

hippókamptos (strouthíon). - Unidentified.

histrax.- "A kind of bird"; not a bird but certainly histryx the hedgehog.

hitta = hippa.

horasis.- "Eagle"; not a bird name, but refers to the sharp eyesight of hawks (orasis "sense of sight", horao "to see").

hortokorydos, see orthokórydos.

hybrís,hýbris.- Owl.

hýllos.- Not a bird but the mongoose; attributed to an Egyptian bird by the Byzantine scribes.

hypaíetos = gypaíetos.

hyperionís.- A fabulous eagle; cf. hippárionð5.15.3..

hypodedios.- A Lybian bird, perhaps the Ostrich (see Thompson).

hypolaís,hypollís etc.- A small unidentified bird. One should not see in this word hypo + laïos, but the verb hypolaléo "to whisper". Sundevall suggests the Whitethroat, 362. Adopted in orn. as a name for a sylvid Hypolais, 380, 381.

hypothymís.- Unidentified. Adopted in orn. for a genus of Asiatic flycatcher Hypothymisazurea.

hypotriórchès.- A wide-winged hawk, Black Kite ? ð5.15.3.. (triórchès is a name for the Kestrel).

íbinos.- "Eagle" (cf. Alb. iv "eagle").

íbis,ibyx.- Ibis sacré, 132 ð4.4.1.1.. Adopted in orn. as a sc. name for an African stork Mycteriaibis and for the Cattle Egret Bubulcusibis, 122, and in the compound names Pseudibis,Lophotibis,Carphibis,Ibidorhyncha.

ichla,ichalè = kichla.

ichneûmon.- Not a bird but the ichneumon (mongoose), see hýllos.

idalís,idaliós = edolios.

idéon.- A hawk.

ikteros.- Loriot, 296 ð3.4.1.1.. Adopted as a generic name for the American orioles Icterus.

iktínos,íktinos,iktís.- Kite, 215 and 216, i.e. "fish tail". Still in use in the Cyclades, see No. 215, Greek.

illiás,iliás,illás,illádos.- Cf. Skr. hilla, the Bank Mynah of India Acridotheres gingianus. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some African babblers Illadopsis.

indikósornis = phoinix.

ionás = oinás.- Cf. Hebr. jonah pigeon.

ionis.- Mentioned among shorebirds, perhaps the Purple Swamphen ð3.2.2.5..

ippè,ipnè, see hippè.

iskla,ischla = kichla.

íspnos = spínos?.

ixovóros,ixovólos.- See the following.

ixophágos,ixoergós.- Mistle Thrush, Turdusviscivorus, 340.

íynx,ínyx,ítyx.- Attributed to the Wryneck, but see Green Woodpecker, 270, Greek and ð5.15.3..-Adopted in orn. as a name for the Wryneck, Jynxtorquilla.

itzínès = atsèinoi.

kabáka = kèux.

kaímion (Poxy 1656, 14). "Name of a fowl", Coptic caime.

kakkabís,kakkabè,kakkaba.- Rock Partridge Alectorisgraeca (chukar). See Orbis 16: 161-164, 1967. Cf. Georg. kakabi, Arabic uqub,ya`qub. Has been used in orn. as a name for the Rock Partridge Caccabis (= Alectoris).

kalaïs.- Domestic hen, cf. kállon.

kalamodýtès.- Unidentified. Has been used in orn. as a name for a reed-warbler Calamodytes (= Acrocephalus).

kálandros.- Skylark, 297, Mod. Gr. kalandra.

kálaphos = askálaphos.

kálaris.- Unidentified (= kólaris) tòn dì kálarin o aigoliós...(Arist.). Cf. Cz. kalaus Wood Owl ð5.10.1..

kalídris,skalídris,skandrís,sialandris.- A shorebird; cf. Mod. Gr. skalistra or chalikías Turnstone, 190. Adopted in orn. for a genus of sandpipers Calidris.

kaliós = kolèos.

kállon.- Cock ð4.2.15.1..

kalotýpos.- Woodpecker, cf. xylokèpos.

kanós.- Cock, 2 ð5.8.5..

karalius.- Wren, 406, cf. Lith. karalis, id.

kárphyroioineossoi.- Means "nest of straw".

kárydos,karýdalos = korýdalos.

karýstios.- Prob. not a bird but an insect (see Thompson) ð3.2.1..

kasandèrion íktinos.- Prob. a fish, see díktisoiktinos.

káspioiórnithes.- Birds of the Caspian. The descriptions, although fancy (see Thompson) identify a Flamingo.

katarráktès.- A water bird. Several species have been suggested (see Thompson) but do not tally with the descriptions. It prob. is a noisy bird ð5.9.6..- Catarractes has been adopted as a name for a Skua.

katophagás.- For skatophágos; a name still in use in Sicily: scatafà Arctic Skua, 77.

katreûs.- An Indian bird, prob. the Monal Lophophorusimpeyanus a pheasant with remarkable metallic colours ð3.4.2.4.. Adopted as a sc. name for another Himalayan pheasant Catreuswallichi.

kaukalías,kaukíalos,kaukiálès.- Unidentified. Cf. Lith. kaukalé Bittern and other names of acoustic origin ð5.13.1..

kayax = kèyx.

kéarosortyx.- Quail ?. "Presumably an attempt to transliterate some such quail-name as we find in provincial Italian quaglia, quagliari etc." (Thomson).

keblèpyris.- The Linnet, 422, not the Redpoll. keblè,kebalè is Maced. for kephalè "head", and pyris "fire". Adopted as a sc. name for a genus of Asiatic bird Ceblepyris (= Coracina).

kebríon.- Unidentified.

keíris.-Orneon,hierax, oidèalkyóna (Hesych.). There has been a confusion with kíris. As it is a legendary bird, the name may be of foreign origin.

keíssa = kissa.

kèkos (genit.).- See kèyx.

kèlas.- Marabout, Leptopiloscrumeniferus, 129, from kèlè "goitre".

keleós,kèliós,kaliós,koiliós, kolèos.- Green Woodpecker, 270 ð5.10.2.. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some American woodpeckers Celeus.

kélphos = kepphos.

kenchrís,kenchrè,kenchrínès,kerchnís,kerchnè,kerkax.- Kestrel, 234 ð5.13.2. (kenchrís) and ð5.2.30. (kerchnís).

kenchrítès.- Teal, 43 ð5.13.2..

kenchros,kenchrís,kerchnès.- Corn Bunting, 445, Mod. Gr. kekropoûlið5.2.30., also ð5.13.2. (kenchros).

kephalás.- Shrikes, 324-326, from their big head.

képphos,kipphos,kélphos,kémphos (= keûx, etc.).- A petrel, see No 115, Greek. The Hebr. kephud appears to be a borrowing from Gr. Adopted in orn. as a name for a northern seabird Cepphusgrylle.

keraïs.-Crow or a small unidentified bird.

kérberos.- Unidentified.

kerchnè.- 1. = kenchrís. 2. = kerchnèis.

kerchnèis,kerchnès,kerchnè.- Kestrel, 234 ð5.2.30.. Has been used as a sc. name Cerchneis (= Falco).

kerkás = krexð5.2.30..

kérkax.- Prob. the Kestrel, 234 = kenchrís and kerchnèis.

kerkèris,kerkûris.- A water bird, prob. a teal, 43 ð5.2.30..

keríon.- An Indian bird with fine colours: the Indian Roller, 264a ð5.2.30..

kerkís = kérkax.

kerkithalís.- Heron according Hesychius, attribution prob.erroneous. Calque loaned by Varron and attributed to a teal, 43 ð5.2.30..

kérknos.- A hawk = kerchnèis.

kerkoronos.- Thompson suggests "kerkokoronè". In this case it would be the same as kerkíon, the Indian Roller, 264a (it has been offered as a tribute to the king of India). In Mod. Gr. chalkokoronè, is the name of the European Roller, 265.

kérkos,kérknos.- Cock, 2, < Pers. kerk.

kerthios.- Creeper, 404, see No 405, Romanian. Adopted as a generic name for this bird, Certhia.

kèrýlos,keirylos.- Kingfisher, 267 ð3.1.66.. Has been adopted in orn. for a genus of kingfishers Ceryle, and in the combinations Megaceryle,Chloroceryle.

kèryx.- Cock ð5.2.8..

ketas.- A water bird. Cf. Arabic ghattas Great Crested Grebe, 66, abu-ghattas Cormorant, 105 ð10.1.1..

kèyx,kèx,kayex,kayès,kayax,kábyx,kabèx,kabáka, keykas,káka (= kepphos),kèkos (genit.).- A gull-like bird that runs over the wavess; this description applies to the petrels, see No 115, gr. Adopted in orn. as a name for a tropical kingfisher Ceyx.

kichla,ichla, ischla, kichèlè,ichalè.- Thrush, 339, Mod. Gr. tsichlað5.3.3.2.. Adopted as a sc. name for various species of birds in the compounds Hylocichla,Myrmecocichla,Cichladusa, etc.

kikkábè,kikybos,kikybèïs,kikumèis, kíkimos,kíkumos,kiku1s.- Little Owl, 242, Mod. Gr. koukouvaia, Sard. cuccuméu. Adopted in orn. as a name for a genus of tropical owl Ciccaba.

kíkkiros.- Cock, 2, an Oscan name ð4.1.10..

kikkos,kikkè.- Cock, 2 ð4.1.10..

kíkumos.- See kikkábè.

kilías.- Unidentified.

killouros.- Wagtail, 313; cf. Old Prussian. kylo, kylé, Latvian cielava id. See. O. Schrader, Beitr.Kund.indog.Spr. 15: 127and

kinaídion,kinaídios,kirnaíos = iynx therefore the Green Woodpecker. See ð5.8.8..

kindapsós = skindapsós.

kinklos,kinklis,kinkalos.- A shorebird smaller than pygargos (Common Sandpiper), the Wagtail, 313 ð6.3.12.. Adopted as a sc. name for the Dipper, Cinclus.

kinnámomon,kinnamológos.- A fabulous bird, originating from Assyrian kinnu nest (see Thompson).

kinnírys.- A small bird. Cognate to kinyritso "to lament" ð5.8.8..- Adopted as a generic name for some sunbirds Cinnyris (= Anthreptes), and in the compound Cinnyricinclus, a starling.

kinýtidos (charadriós).- Cf. kinètèrios "agitating" charadriós q.v. and ð6.3.8..

kíris, kirris.- A kind of hawk; a white bird with red legs (read "bill") and purple crest. Lindsay proposes a tern; cf. Sic. and Cal. cirr et var., 97. Adopted as a sc. name for a mexican bird Passerinaciris.

kírkè.- A bird different from kírkosð5.2.30..

kírkos.- A hawk ð4.2.8..

kirnaíos = kinaídion.

kíssa,kítta.- Jay, 290, Mod. Gr.. kitsað5.9.4.. Adopted as sc. names for Asiatic jays, Cissa and Kitta

kíssiris,kísirnis.- Unidentified.

kítta = kíssa.

klángos,plangos.- A hawk, prob. the Buzzard, 211, or a small eagle ð5.12.4..- Adopted in orn. as a name for a small eagle Aquilaclanga.

kladarórhynchos.- A shorebird (= trochílos Curlew ?). Not "clapper-bill" as in Thompson but from kládaros "flexible, pliant". An allusion to the curved bill of the Curlew (or the Avocet). Adopted as sc. name for an Australian stilt Cladorhynchus.

klogmós.- Clucking of a hen; Mod. Gr. kloka, Romance cloca "clucking hen" ð5.12.4..

kloion.- Unidentified.

klytósornis (alektryon).

knipológos.- Creeper, 404, 405 (?). This name is not descriptive of a creeper. Prob. a translation, see konopothèras. Adopted as a sc. name for a genus of neotropical climbing birds.

kokalos.- Cock, 2 ð4.1.4.1..

kókki.- Song of the Cuckoo.

kokkóax,kokkoáx = kórax.

kokkobárè.- Little Owl, cf. Mod. Gr. kokkovári, No. 242. See also kikkabè.

kokkobóasornis.- "O alektryon", the rooster, cf. Mod. Gr. kukkyvoás.

kokkothraûstès.- Hawfinch, 431. Adopted as its sc. name Coccothraustes.

kokkysmós.- Song of the rooster.

kókkyx.- Cuckoo, 261. Adopted in orn. for some cuckoos, Coccyzus,Coccystes,Geococcyx, etc.

kokkyzein.- To crow (of the rooster).

kolainís.- Prob. not a bird name.

kólaris,kálaris.- Unidentified.

kolèos,kèlès,kèliós,kaliós,koiliós,koleós,kolios.- Woodpeckers, 270-273; from koilós "hollow, cavity" (not from kalaïnos "blue-green"). Adopted as sc. name for an African bird Colius and for a genus of South American woodpeckers Celeus.

kollyrion,koryllion.- Shrike according to Belon; however, this name appears to be derived from kóllo "to paste, stick" and in this case could be a name for the Oriole, cf. Spanish colgadero Oriole, 296, an allusion to the seemingly "glued" nest to a branch. The Mod. Gr. kollikon has been attributed to "shrike" prob. after Belon's identification of kollyrion. Adopted as a specific name for the Red-backed Shrike Laniuscollurio, 326.

koloiós.- 1. Jackdaw, 285; still attested in Cyprus. 2. Cormorants, 105, 107, see ð3.1.42.. Has been used in orn. as a name for the Jackdaw Coloeus (= Corvus).

koloíphryx.- "Cock from Tanagra".

kolophon (okoloiós) ð5.10.1..

kolymbís,kólymbos.- A diving bird, prob. a grebe, 70 ð10.3.. Has been adopted in orn. as a name for divers Colymbus (= Gavia).

kómba (koronè).- Perhaps the Black (or Cinereous) Vulture, see Alb. komba Vulture, 197.

konopothèras.- "Flycatcher" prob. the traduction of a foreign name.

kontilos ("èórtyx"). "The word may be connected with kóntos, and relate to the game of ortigokopia or quail-kapping" (Thompson). In this case it is not the bird's name.

koorophos = kóssyphos.

kops = skops.

kópsychos = kóssyphos. Adopted as a name for an Asiatic turdid, Copsychus.

korakías,korakínos.-A corvid; appears to be a dimin. of korax. Adopted as sc. names for a roller Coracias and some Asiatic birds Coracina.

kóraphos.- Unidentified.

korax.- 1. A crow, 281; Mod. Gr. id. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Raven, Corvuscorax. 2. Cormorant, 105-107 ð5.2.27..

kórkora.- Domestic fowl ð5.2.30..

koronè.- Crow, 281; Mod. Gr. koronað5.2.28.. Adopted in orn. for the Carrion Crow Corvuscorone.

koronèèthalássios.- Cormoran, 105-107.

kórthilos.- Attributed to "basilískon" but certainly a name for the creeper (= kérthios) see No. 405, Romanian. Has been used in orn. as a name for a North American bird Cortylius (= Regulus).

korýdos,korydós,kórydos,korydones,korydálos,korydállos, korydálla,korydallís,korydalís,korydallè, korýphallos.- Crested Lark, 299, Mod.Gr. korydálosð4.2.5..

koryllion = kollyrion.

koryntheûs = korythón.

korythaiolos.- Epithet of the Hoopoe ð4.2.5..

korython,koryntheûs.- Cock ð4.2.5..

kóskikos = kóttos.

kóssyphos,kóssykos,kópsykos,kóttyphos,koorophos.- Blackbird, 343 ð5.9.1.. Adopted as a generic name for an African turdid, Cossypha.

kóttos,kóttylos,kótikas,kóskikos.- Domestic fowl, Mod. Gr.. kotta hen, 2.

kóttyphos = kóssyphos.

kotylè,kotilas.- Sand Martin, 320; nests in hollows in sandbanks. Cf. kotylè, Mod. Gr..kotyla "hollow", Cz. kotlati "becoming hollow".

koukoûphas,koukoûpha,koûkouphos.- Hoopoe, 263;borrowing to Hebr. kukuphað4.1.8..

koukouriakós.- Song of the rooster, cf. Alb. kokoriko.

koureûs.- "Ornis poios", simply means "barber".

koutídes (sykallídes).- Unidentified.

krabos (oláros).- Unidentified.

kraktès = krax.- Has been used in orn. for a jay Cractes (= Perisoreus).

krámbotoníktinos.- Should not be translated by "kite" but by "dried fish".

krangon.- Magpie, 288; Mod. Gr. kranga id. ð5.2.35..

kraugós,kraugon.- Woodpecker, 270; Mod. Gr. kravgos id. ð5.2.35..

krax,kraktès.- A noisy bird ð5.2.38.. Adopted in orn. as generic name for a neotropical gallinaceous bird Crax.

krex,kerkás.- A bird with a long bill, long legs and short hind toe. These details, in conjunction with the name identify the Corn Crake, 146, for which the name has been adopted in orn., Crexcrexð5.2.38..

kríes (èchelidon).- The Swift, 321 ð5.2.9..

krigè (èglaux).- The Barn Owl, 238 ð5.2.35.

kýanos.- The Blue Rock Thrush, 345; Belon's description is clear.

kýchramos = kynchrámos.

kýdnos = kyknos.

kýknos,kiknías.- The Stork, 25; Mod. Gr. tsiknias.

kymbè.- Cf. kombè. Mythological figure changed in to a dove. A borrowing from the Romance, cf. Ital. (Genova) cumbu dove, 255.

kýmindis.- The Bald Ibis, 131; the description is clear ð4.4.9..

kynaíginthos = aíginthos = aigithalos.- Prob. the Blue Tit, 391; from kyáneos "blue" ð3.4.1.2..

kynchrámos,kýchramos,kechrámos.- 1.Abird which accompanies the migrating quails, the Corn Crake, 146, ð5.13.2..- 2. The Corn Bunting, 445, see kenchros. Has been used as a name or a bunting Cynchramus (= Emberiza).

kýpselos,kypséllos.- A kind of swallow. Cf. kypsélè "box, cell (of bees), opening of the ear". This etymology confirms Sundevall's opinion, who recognizes this swallow as the Sand Martin, 320, nesting in colonies in hollows dug out in sand banks; Mod. Gr. kýpsellos. Cf.kotilas. Has been used in orn. as a name for the swift Cypselus (= Apus).

kyparíssia.- A variety of the domestic cock ð3.4.16.2.. Cf. chalkidikós.

kythána.- Unidentified.

laedós,laidós,laethós.- See laïós.

galodios,lagodias.- An owl, prob. the Wood Owl ð5.12.3..

lagopous.- Ptarmigan, for which the name has been adopted in orn., Lagopusmutus, 12. The term means "spotted" and is not related to lagos "hare " ð3.1.26..

lagos,lagois.- A bird mentioned with the swallow, perhaps the swift ð5.12.3..

lagothèras,lagophónos.- A hawk. "Hare hunting eagle" is usually attributed to Hieraaetusfasciatus, 209.

laïós,baíos,phaíos and prob. laedós, etc.- "The correct reading of the name is unknown" (Thompson). A bird resembling the Blackbird (and not "thrush" as often translated). Sundevall (1863: 109) suggests the Blue Rock Thrush and gives the etymology < láas "rock"; phaiós dark is more likely to be correct, see Thompson p. 191.

lákra (byz.).- "Heron", but cf. Pers. etc. laklak, Mod. Gr. liléki Stork, 127.

lálagès.- "Chloroíbatrachoi" is a description of the green tree frog or, if a bird (ornéon eidós phasi), the Bee-eater, 265, a green bird with an elongated tail, Alb. lylykësð5.12.1..- Adopted in orn. as a name for an Asiatic bird Lalage.

láros.- A gull, Mod. Gr. gláros id. ð3.1.33.. Adopted as a generic name for gulls, Larus.

lasiporphyrís,lathiporphyrís = haliporphyrís.

lebèrís.- A bird of bad omen.

leios = eleios.

leukógryps.- Egyptian Vulture, 199.

leukometopos.- Coot, 138.

leukomes.- Little Egret, 121.

leukerodios,leukoródios.- The Spoonbill, for which the name has been adopted, Platalealeucorodia, 130.

leukosherodios.- Great Egret, 120.

libykónórneon.- See hypodedios and the following.

libyós (strouthiosolibyós).- Ostrich.

línourgos.-Not a duck but the net weaver, or the net used to catch ducks. Adolpted in orn. as a name for an African greenfinch Linurgusolivaceus.

lobèx.- A hawk ð77., French

lókalos.- Owl. Thompson rightly suggests the Ital. names of the Wood Owl loc,aloc, etc., No. 239.

lýkos,lýkios.- Prob. the Black Kite, 215, a carrion eater, Mod. Gr. lykórnio; see No. 197, Ital.

makesícranos.- The Hoopoe ð4.7.4.

malakokráneus.- Shrikes, 324, 327. Considering that shrikes often bear names like "big head", Thompson suggests the the name should rather be megalokráneus.

málèkos (Hdn. Gr. 1: 151).- Unidentified.

maps.- Not a species of bird. Thompson cites "mapsilógoi ornithes, birds whose cries convey no certain augury".

marássai (ornithes).- Unidentified. May be an allusion to the destruction of birds (maraíno).

mastophagès.- "Probably for mastakophagès, i.e. locust-eater " Thompson, cf. n.grec agriopoûli (pour akrido-), No. 295.

mattýès.- "A bird from Macedonia"; must be interpreted as "Macedonian name for a bird" (all Macedonian birds are found in Greece). Cf. Romanian, Serbocr. matias et var. Jay, 290 ð3.6.21..

mèdikoiorneis.- (Bird of the Medes). 1. A variety of dometic fowl. 2. The Peafowl.

melagris,meleagris,meleágros.- The Guinea Fowl for which the name has been adopted in orn., Numidameleagris, 6, a name also given to the Turkey Meleagrisgallopavo. The name would be of foreign origin, prob. Semitic (see Thompson); however, no similar Semitic or African name exists. therefore it appears more logical to relate it to an Indo-European root ð3.6.32..

melampýgos.- A hawk. (The Black Kite, 215, for which Pliny gave the synonym hynnularia the Black Kite has a neighing call).

melándeiros.- Unidentified.

melankóryphos.- 1. A titmouse; the Great Tit is often call "black head" in various languages. Paruspalustris and Sylviaatricapilla also have a black cap. 2. A fabulous bird from Arabia.

melanóstès.- A hawk; "perhaps for melanáetos" Thompson.

melanthrix.- See Mod. Gr. malathritis, No. 398.

melissós (Byz.).- A small bird, Mod. Gr. melissourgos Great Tit, 390.

mémnon,memnonís,Mémnonosórnis.- A fabulous bird; the Ruff Philomachus pugnax, see Thompson.

ménnoia (Byz.).- A bird migrant; cf. Sic. munacuna, Cal. munaceddi, names of some diving ducks ð3.6.44..

mérmnos,mérmnès.- A hawk, in Egypt.

mérops,aerops,eirops,erops.- Bee-eater, 265, for which the name has been adopted in orn., Meropsapiasterð3.6.10.. Mérops seems to be still in use in Cyprus, see Mod. Gr.

methythrídes.- "A kind of small bird". Thompson suggests methydrídes,methydriades, water-nymphs".

míntha.- "An alleged name for iynx" (Thompson).

monokéros.- Calao, an Ethiopian bird with an enormous bill.

monósiroi.- A kind of fowl in Egypt. Prob. the same as the preceding.

mórphnos.- A large hawk ð3.6.2.. Adopted as a sc. name for a neotropical eagle Morphnusguianensis.

mygerós,mamýgeros.- "Ptènónnyktikórax" therefore the Nightjar, 251; cf. Ital. pappamuschi.

myttèx.- Unidentified.

nebrax.- Cockerel, see No. 2, Mod. Gr.

nebrophónos.- Not a bird, see pýgargos (3)

neottos.- Nestling.

nértos.- Anc. Egyptian nert "vulture".

nèssa,nèssárion.- Duck.

nètta,nèttion,nèssa.- Duck ð10.12.2.. Used in orn. in the compounds Melanitta,Rhodonessa,Nettapus, etc.

nèttoktónos,nèttophónos.- A hawk, cf. Mod. Gr. nessaetós, 210.

Nisos.- King of Megara changed into a hawk; Hebr. neser, ar. nisr, etc.ð14.5.1.. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Sparrow Hawk Accipiternisus.

Nomásórnis, noumènios.- Bird of Numidia, the Guinea Fowl Numidameleagris.

nossás,nossax.- Poussin, see No. 2, n.grec.

noumènios = Nomásórnis (q.v.), a spotted bird resembling attagas, therefore the Guinea Fowl, 6. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Curlew Numenius arquatus, 167, after the erroneous translation "new moon", the bill of the Curlew being arched "like a moon crescent".

nyktaíetos.- See nyktikórax.

nykterís,nykterída.- Bat.

nyktikórax,nyktokorax,nyktopatès.- A nocturnal bird, certainly the Nightjar, 251, Mod. Gr. nychtikórakas. The Nightjar is often taken for an owl. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Night Heron Nycticoraxnycticorax, 126. Catalan corbdenit and Ital. corvodinotte attributed to the Night Heron are translations of the sc. name.

ochrá = Peristerámèlinèð3.2.51.4. (several green pigeon occur in India; Chalcophaps indica is the best known species).

oinádo-thèras.- Pigeon hunter.

oinánthè.- A small bird ð3.2.5.3.. Attributed by Belon to the Wheatear, 349, for which this name has been retained in orn., Oenantheoenanthe.

oinás,oiniás,oeniáx,inás.- A pigeon ð3.5.2.3.. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Stock Pigeon Columbaoenas, 256, for a genus of dove Oenacapensis, and in the compounds Alectroenas,Mesoenas, etc.

oionós.- "Bird, particularly large hawk; bird of omen". The etym. < oón proposée par H. Schmeja, in Sprache 17: 180-182, 1971, is not acceptable. Oionós is not a bird name; its meaning is "omen; augury".

oístros.- Horse fly; erroneous attributed to "small bird".

okyptéros.- Fast, swift ð225., Mod. Gr.

óknos,oknós.- A heron, also "lazy", Ital.perdigiorni Heron 118 and also "lazy".

olaitoi,olatoí = spermológos. From olai "barley seed".

olkás (aèdon). Definition prob. erroneous; olkás is a towing vessel.

ololygaia,ololygon.- Attributed to various birds, frog, cicada ð5.24.1..

onokrótalos.- Pelican, 103, 104 ð5.2.49.. For relation to onos "jackass", cf. its Ham.-Sem. name "river jackass", its voice being likened to that of a jackass (contra Thompson who states that the pelican is "mute and voiceless"). Adopted as a specific name for the White Pelican Pelecanusonocrotalus.

ophiouros.- "A kind of Ethiopian bird", perhaps the Secretary Bird which feeds on snakes.

ophthalmías.- "An eagle"; not a bird name, but an allusion to the sharp sight of hawks. See horasis.

órchilos.- The Wren. Cf. orchis "testicle", orchidia "variety of olive" bulg. orexce "Wren" i.e. "walnut (shaped)" (cf. Mod. Gr. trypokaryda, Calabria caridaci, etc. Wren, 406). The circum-balkanic distribution of Slavic orex,oreS "nut" points to an Illyrian origin ð12.1..

oreinós.- 1. A kind of titmouse, prob. the Long-tailed Tit; < oura tail. 2. A hawk = órneon.

oreipélargos.- A large hawk with a white head, prob. the Griffon Vulture or perhaps the Osprey. It is incorrect to divide this word in two elements and to translate it by "mountain stork" which makes no sense.

oreitès.- A hawk ? (mentioned with kenchrèis), see órneon, oreinós. Has been used as a name for the Long-tailed Tit Orites, replaced by Aegithalos, and for an Asiatic warbler Horeitescantans.

oríon,horíon.- A fabulous Indian bird; "like a heron, with red legs". Prob. a mythological figure.

orirax = oûrax.

orneodès.- Bird-like.

órneon,oreinós.- Grand rapace, 12.1.

órnis.- Bird ð13.2 and No. 2, Greek.

ornítheios.- Belonging to birds, particularly to domestic fowl.

ornitheio.- To hunt birds.

ornithikós,órnithognomon.- Proper to birds.

orníthion.- Small bird.

ornitholóchos,ornithothèras.- Bird catcher.

ornithológos.- Who speaks to birds

ornithoskópos.- That serves to test omens.

ornithotomón.- Dissection of birds.

ornithotrophía.- Raising of birds, particularly domestic fowl.

oróspizos,oróspizès.- A blue-breasted bird; the Bluethroat ? Adopted in orn. as a name for a Mexican finch Oreospiza.

ortalís,ortalikos,ortálichos.- A young bird; cf. ortèx "sucker, young shoot". Adopted as a generic name of some neotropical gallinaceous bird Ortalida.

orthokóridos,hortokórydos.- Epithet for a lark, 299.

ortygomètra.- The Corn Crake, 146, Mod. Gr. ortygomána,ortikovasilias.

ortyx.- Quail ð5.7..- Adopted as a sc. name in the compounds Oreortyx,Dactylortyx, etc.

ostoklástès,ostokatáktès,ostokorax.- Byz. Gr. for Lat. ossifraga.

otís,outís.- the Great Bustard, 136, q.v., Mod. Gr. Adopted in orn. for this bird Otistarda.

otos.- An owl of the genus Asio 248, 250. Adopted in orn. for Otusscops and Asiootus.

ouragós.- A longtailed bird, the Long-tailed Tit, 398. Adopted in orn. for an Asiatic rosefinch Uragussibiricus.

ourax,orirax.- Another name for tétrix. Allusion to the striking lyre-shaped tail.

ouría.- A water bird ð10.13.. Adopted in orn. as a name for a northern seabird Uriaaalge.

oxyptérion (Byz.), oxyptéryx (Middle Gr.).- Not a hawk but a calque of Anc. Gr. okypterosð225., Mod. Gr.

págros.- Unidentified.

pánelops = pènélops.

páon.- Peafowl, 4; evidently a Romance borrowing.

pappázein.- To cackle (goose).

páppos.- Prob. the same as South Ital. pápara "goose, Mod. Gr. pápia "duck". Cf. also the preceding word.

paraós.- A hawk, Macedonian name. ð5.2.21.1..

párdalos,párdalis.- Shrike, 324. In Mod. Gr. the same name is given to various spotted species ð3.2.44..

pareudiastès,pareudistès.- An unidentified bird (prob. one that arrives with the fine weather). Adopted in orn. for a Samoan waterhen, Pareudiastespacificus.

pasidon.- Syn. of alkyon ? (a dubious word). See rather hásida,hásidon.

pelargós.- "Stork". Originally perhaps a name for the Grey Heron, cf. eródiosopellós "Grey Heron" ð3.1.39..

pelèár = péleia.

péleia,peleiás,pelèïás,pelèar (err. for pelèas).- Pigeon ð3.1.39.. Adopted as a sc. name for some doves in the compounds Oropeleia,Streptopelia etc.

peleiáschloróptilos.- An Indian green pigeon. Several species occur in India, but the most frequently exported is Chalcophapsindica.

pelekán,pelekinos.- Pelican, 103, 104, and also the Spoonbill, 130, q.v. French, Ital., Sbc., Pol. Adopted as a generic name for the pelicans Pelecanus.

pelekás.- Woodpecker, 270, Mod. Gr. pilikas id.

péllos.- A heron, 118 ð3.1.39..

pènelops.- A kind of duck, Ital.: Ven. pignol Canard pilet, 41 and ð270., French Adopted in orn. as a name for the Wigeon, 46, Anaspenelope, and for a neotropical gallaniceous bird, Penelope.

perdikothèras.- A hawk, Mod. Gr. perdikóthira Goshawk, 224.

pérdix,pèrix,perdíkas,perdíkkas,perdeikas,perdkías.- Partridge, 17. Borrowed from Romance. Retained in orn. for the Grey partridge Perdixperdix.

peristerá,peristeris,peristerós.- Domestic or feral dove, 254. Correct etymology given by Moorhouse, Class.Phil. 44: 73-75, 1950; from peri "around": the pigeon that lives around or near human habitations.

peristerámèlinè.- A green pigeon from India ð3.6.36.. Several green pigeons occur in India.

pèrix = pérdix.

perknópteros,perkóptero.- A vulture, prob. a fabulous bird. In orn. attributed to the Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopteros, 199. See also the following names.

perknós,pérkos,spérchnon,sterchnón.- Names for a hawk ð410, French (base p-r).

pérnès,pternis.- A hawk. Should relate to pérno "to pillage, plunder". Adopted as a name for the Honey Buzzard Pernisapivorus.

Persikósornis.- The domestic fowl, originating from India and introduced in the West via Persia.

petrítès (byz.).- A hawk ð5.22.1.. No kin to Ital. (Otranto) piddrettu, which is but a rhotacized form of pilettu,piddettu (No. 234).

petrochelidon.- Swift, 321.

phábos.- Pigeon ð255., Ital.

phabotýpos,phaboktónos = phassophónos.

phaïós = laïós

phalakrókorax (in Lat. only).- Bald Ibis, 131. Adopted as a sc. name for the Cormorant Phalacrocorax.

phalarís,phalèris.- Coot, 138, Mod. Gr. falarida id.

phálkon.- From Romance falcon.

phaps = phassa (cf. kóssyphosðkópsychos).- Adopted as a generic name for an Australian pigeon Phapschalcoptera, and in the compounds Chalcophaps,Geophaps, etc.

phasianós,phasianikós.- The Pheasant, for which the name has been retained in orn. Phasianuscolchicus; this name does not means "from the Phasis river" but represents a plumage character; see No. 3, Ital.

phaskás = boskás.

phassa,phatta,phaps.- Wood Pigeon, 255 ð3., Ital. Adopted in orn. in the compound Petrophassa, an Australian pigeon.

phassophónos,phassophóntès.- A hawk.

phellínas.- A shorebird. From phellinos "gravel", phelleûs "stony ground", like French gravelot.

philadelphos (See Tiernel, 1948: 171). Cf. Pers. dubaràdaràn (two brothers) an eagle, 209.

phènè.- A hawk, prob.the Bearded Vulture, 200, or perhaps the Red Kite, 216 ð3.5.1.2..

philomèla.- "Daughter of Pandion changed into a nightingale". Legends are evidently embroidered on the name as it is invariably the case, and not vice versa. Names of the Nightingale, 337 of Balkanic origin particularly common in Hungary (< Illyrian substr.) ð5.4.3..- Adopted as a sc. name for the Song Thrush, Turdusphilomelos.

phlegýas,phlexis.- A yellow-coloured hawk (xanthós). Prob. the equivalent of phoenix.

phlexis = phlegýas

phlóros,phloros.- Greenfinch, 416, Mod. Gr. floros; see chloris.

phoenikólegnos.- A duck; the name means "with red flanks". Only the Shoveller, 42, bears this character.

phoenikópteros.- Flamingo, 24, for which the name has been retained in orn., Phoenicopterus.

phoenikouros.- Redstart, 347, 348, for which the name has been retained in orn., Phoenicurus.

phoenix.- Described as a bird, but it is a purely poetic image of the sun ð3.5.1.2..

phokíon.- Unidentified.

pholas.- Brooding hen (pholiá = nid).

phoyx,phoynx.- Prob. identical to boýnx q.v. Has been used in orn. in the compound names for some herons Melanophoyx, Leucophoyx etc. (= Ardea) .

phrygílos.- Chaffinch, 432. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for some South American finches, Phrygilus.

phrynológos,phrynolóchos.- A hawk, supposed to be a harrier, which often feeds on frogs.

phrýnos.- "A yellow bird" but prob. just "toad", one species of which has the belly variegated with orange and black; see ð3.2.47..

pingas = spingos.

piphalis,piphinx,piphynx.- "Korydalós" = prob. the Tree Pipit, 307, which is often called "lark" ð5.23.11..

pípo,pípa,pípos,pípra,pípro.- Woodpecker ð5.23.11.. Adopted in orn. in the compound Sapheopipo, an Oriental woodpecker, and as a generic name for a South American manakin Pipra.

pípos,pippos.- chicken ð5.23.11..

pípra.- See pípo.

pípylos,pítylos.- Unidentified ð5.23.11.. Adopted as a sc. name for two American birds Pitylus and Pipilo.

plángos,plánchos,plános = klangos.

platagízein.- To cackle (goose) ð5.11.5..

pogonias.- A race of domestic fowl in India (= bearded or hairy).

poikillís,poikilís.- The Goldfinch, 415 see ð3.7.7..

polás.- A hen, prob. the same as pholas.

pontikósórnis.- Pheasant, after the erroneous etymology of phasianos understood "from the Phasis river", when the name describes a plumage character; see ð55., Ital.

popopoi.- Hoopoe, 263 (imit.).

porphyrís = haliporphyrís.

poupos.- Hoopoe, 263, Mod. Gr. id.

poyx,poynx = phoynx.

próknè.- daughter of Pandion, changed into a swallow. Appears to the meaning of "precursor" (of spring). Adopted as a generic name for an american swallow Progne, and in the compounds Psalidoprogne etc.

présbys.- "Trochílos"; however présbys appears to be a transl. of daco-romanian ausél (see ð399., Lith.) understood "old man".

psar,psáros,psarichos,psèr,psèras.- Starling, 293, cf. Mod. Gr. psaróni. Adopted in orn. in the componds Psaroglossa (an Indian starling), Psarocolius,Notiopsar (American genera) etc.

psèlèx,psèlix.- Perhaps a race of crestless dometic fowl (Thompson).

psènè = phènè?

psiphaion.- A small bird, cf. Mod. Gr. tsiphias Corn Bunting, 445 ð5.3.4..

psittákè, sittákè, psíttakos, síttakos, sittas.- Parrot. A connexion to Indian totà, Pers. tuti appears impossible. The name is not Indian, but should rather relate to Mod. Gr. psittazo "to whistle" and Anc. Gr. psithyrízo "to warble" ð5.9.4..- Retained as generic names for the parrots Psittacus,Psittacula and in numerous compound Myiopsitta, etc.

pternis,ptéron.- A hawk = pérnès.

pterygotýrannos.- "A bird from India"; literally "flying prince", prob. not a bird.

ptéryx.- Unidentified; means simply "wing".

ptynx.- Unidentified. Thompson believes it identical to Anc. Eg. p-tekh ou tekhi, the ibis-headed god. Has beeen used in orn. in the compound Rhinoptynx, an American owl (= Asio).

pygargos 1. Harrier, 219, 220, which have a white rump, and the White-tailed Sea-Eagle Haliaetusalbicilla, 202. Adopted in orn. as a name for the harrier Circuspygargus, 220. 2. The Green Sandpiper, 172, according to Sundevall, p. 147. 3. The roe deer, which also has a white behind, whence the origin of the artificial name nebrophonos = pygargosnebrax young).

pygoskelis.- Grebes, 66-70, cf. Ital. pede-in-culo. Adopted in orn. as a name for a penguin Pygoscelisadeliae.

pyrgítès.- Sparrow, Mod. Gr. spourgitis, see No. 410, French. Adopted in orn. as a name for a sparrow Petroniaxanthocollis pyrgita.

pýrrhias (Oppian), pýrrha (Aelianus), pirrha,pirias,pyrias, pyralis,pyrallis,pyrrhaûlas.- 1. A bird with a big head, therefore the Bullfinch, 430, Mod. Gr. pyrrós,pyrruláso, for which the name has been retained Pyrrhulapyrrhula. 2. Certainly also the Robin, 335, Calabria pírria.

pyrrhokórax.- Red-billed Chough, 288,for which the name has been adopted, pyrrhocorax.

rhámphios,ráphios (Byz.).- Pelican.

rhinokéros.- An Ethiopian calao, characterized by its enormous bill.

rhinokèrax = rhinokéros.

rhóbillos.- Wren, 406, perhaps for "rhégillos", Lat. regulus (Thompson).

rhodios = erodios.

rhyndákè,rhyntákès.- An Indian bird. According to Belon, the janissaries wore the decorative feathers from this bird. Itcould be the beautiful Red-billed Blue Magpie from India Urocissa erythrorhyncha, the elongated tail feathers of which could have been used as an ornament.

rhysomètris = chrysomètris.

sábeiros? .- "Crow" (in Carnoy).

sálpynx,salpynktès,salpistès.- Would be a synonym of órchilos, an unfitting character for this species. Cf. rather salpíxoèméra "to announce daylight (speaking of the rooster)". Adopted in orn. as a name for an American wren Salpinctes.

sarín.-A bird resembling the starling; Pers. sàri,suràn, etc. "starling".

sarion.- "Small starling", dim. of psar.

sarkon.- "Spermológos", the Hooded Crow ð3.2.49..

schoiníklos,schoinílos,schoineûs,schoinion.- A bird that moves its tail and frequent rivers and ponds, mentionned with pýgargos and kínklos, prob. the Common Sandpiper, 178; a name of acoustic origin ð5.8.8.. Adopted in orn. as a name for the Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus because of of the resemblance of the word to schoinós "reed".

seíouros = seisopygís.- Adopted as a sc. Name for an North American bird Seiurus.

seirèn.- 1. A small unidentified bird. "Probably identical with Ital. serino, Fr. serin" (Thompson) which is certainly correct. 2. A legendary bird with bird's feet and an enchanting voice. Cf. Ital. (Servigliano) sira "orcio" a sea mammal, and the Semitic sir "to sing", a linking of two words that gave rise to the legend of the siren, the marine beings who lured sailors to destruction by their seductive singing.

seirophóros.- "The one that leads with a chain". Not a bird.

seisóphelos.- Prob. identical to seisopygís.

seisopygís,seíouros, seísoura.- Wagtail, 313, or Common Sandpiper, 178 (both wag their tail) ð6.3.11..

seísoura = seisopygís

seleukís,seleukias.- Rose-coloured Starling, 295, a name of oriental origin. Adopted in orn. as a name for a bird of paradise Seleucidismelanoleuca.

semíramis.- "Mountain pigeon". Not a bird but an infant fed by doves.

sérkos (alektryon).- Epithet for the rooster ð4.2.9..

sértès (géranos) = syristès.

sialendrís = kalídris.

sialis.- A bird so called after its song ð5.3.1.. Adopted as a name for an American bird, Sialiasialis.

síntès.- "A name for the Hoopoe" (Thompson). This epithet meaning "plunderer, thief" is quite unapplicable to this bird.

síppè = síttè.

sisílaros (pérdix).- Cf. Kurdish, etc. sisi, Sand Partridge 20.

sitarís.- Unidentified. Cf. Romanian sitár Woodcock, 193.

sittakós,sittákè,síttas = psíttakos.

síttè,síttos.- A climbing bird, the Green Woodpecker, 270. The mention of the form síppè along with hippè (q.v.) and hitta is a clear indication the name must apply to the Green Woodpecker ð5.15.3.. Adopted as a name for the Nuthatch Sittaeuropaea.

skalídris,skandrís = kalídris.

skíllos (iktínos).- Prob. a fish, see diktys.

skindapsós,kindapsès.- Perhaps not a bird but rather a musical organ ð5.8.5.

skíps = skops ?

skolópax = askolopax. Adopted as a sc. name for the Woodcock Scolopaxrusticola.

skops,kops.- The Scops Owl, see No. 250, Ital.

smárdikon (strouthíon).- Radical smerd "to bite". The Hawfinch, 431, could deserve this name.

smèrinthos.- Unidentified. See chromatic root mir- shining" ð3.6.10..

soles.- Small birds captured with bird lime.

soûspha,soíspha.- Birds of the Indian ocean. Frigate Fregata minor. Name derived from sousthai,seûo "to swoop, hunt", after the way this species pounces on other birds in order to steal their catch.

sparássion.- Sparrow, see spórgilos and No. 410, French

spélektos = pelekán.- A name for the pelican, not a woodpecker (pelekás).No kin to Germ. specht.

spérchnon,stèrchnon = perknós

spérgoulos,spérgys. See sporgílos.

spermológos.- Crow, 280, or Rook, 282, the two species frequent sown fields.

spíndalos.- An Indian bird resembling attagasð3.7.2.3.. Adopted as a sc. name for a tanager Spindalis.

spingos,spinos,spina,spinè,spiza,spinthia,spyngas,pyngas.- Chaffinch, 432, Calabria spintzo,spingi etc. ð5.23.12.. Spinus has been adopted as a name for the Siskin. Carduelisspinus.Spingos enters in the compound Coryphospingus.

spintharis.- Cf. the Greek dialect of Otranto spintharèdda Wagtail, 313 (Rohlfs, 1964: 77) ð3.7.2.2..

spínthia,spinthión = spíngos.

spíza,spizè,spizión.- Prob. identical to spingos Pinson, 432 ð5.23.1.. Adopted in orn. for Spiza americana and in numerous compounds Melospiza,Oreospiza, etc.

spízias.- A hawk; prob. means "finch's hawk".

spizitès.- "A kind of titmouse" ð5.23.1..

sporgílos, spérgoulos,spérgys, sparassion.- Sparrow, see ð410., French, base p-r.

spyngas = spingos.

stauníx.- A hawk, cf. Serbocr. postojna, Kestrel, 234.

stephaníon (eídoskoloioû). Prob. the Shag, 106, a crested cormorant.

stèthiás.- Unidentified.

sterchnón = spérchnon.

stragalinos = astragalinos.

strix,styx,stríglos,strínx.- The Barn Owl ð5.2.40.. Adopted in orn. for the Wood Owl Strixaluco.

strophilos,stophilos,strobylos.- A shorebird, but not necessarily the Nile Plover. Appears to be a transl. of Ital. giron,pirla, sandpipers, 171, understood "swirl" (although they are of acoust. origin).

strouthiokamèlos.- Ostrich, 1. This name appears to be a combination of Persian Sutur (in Sutur-murgh , literally "camel bird" and not from Gr. strouthos that meant and still means today "sparrow"). Now the name "camel sparrow" would lack any logic. If the Greeks had to create this name, they would have made it "ornithokamèlos". It turns out therefore that strouthiokamèlos is a involuntary tautonym. This proposed etymology is reinforced by Lat. avisstruthio which is not a transl. of Greek, but a faithful adaptation of Pers. Sutur-murgh.

strouthós,xouthros,stroutharión,strous. Sparrow, 410. Strouthos is still in use in Cyprus. Sémantique ð6.3.1..

stymphalís,stymphalídèsornithes.- Legendary birds from Arcadia ("Arabia" in Thomson), the size of a crane, resembling an ibis but with a stronger bill. They would have been found on the shore of lake Stymphalus (Pelopon.). They were represented on coins, as crested waterbirds (431-370 B.C.) (Thompson p. 273). Thus, a large crested waterbird resembling the ibis (the Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus is the only other ibis occurring in Greece), with a stronger beak can hardly be anything else than the Bald Ibis, Geronticus eremita, 131a, still occurring today in Turkey. These birds were also named arètiádesorníthes, so called because they were met with by the Argonauts at the island of Dia, or Aretias.

styphokómpos.- A gallinaceous bird, larger than the quail; its meaning appears to be "having a loud voice" and could refer to the Corn Crake, 146.

sunkoûrion (Byz.).- The Gyrfalcon, 230 (Moravcsik, G., Sprachreste der Türkvölker in den byzantinischen Quellen. Byzantinoturcica 2: 240, 1943; quoted by Dörfer). From Altaic Sumqar etc., D.1273.

sykalís.- Oriole, 296, Mod. Gr. id. ð3.4.8.1.. Adopted as a sc. name for a genus of American bird Sycalisflaveola.

syristès (géranos),sertès (géranos).- An ill-fitting epithet (whistler) for a crane. Géranos shouldnot be taken in the literal meaning of "crane" but in the more general meaning of "large wader". This epithet describes the Curlew, 167 ð5.2.1.. Adopted in orn. as a name for an American flycatcher Sirystes (sic) sibilator.

syroperdix.- The Sand Partridge, Ammoperdixhayi, 21 ð5.2.1..

tagèn,tagènárion = attagas.

tanysípteros.- An eptihet for halkyon. Its attribution to a hawk is prob. erroneous. Adopted as a sc. name for a kingfisher Tanysiptera.

taos.- Peafowl, see No. 3, Hebr.

taosagrios.- Lapwing, 158, transl. of a Romance name, cf. French paonsauvage.

taphon (Eol.). Peafowl, see taos.

tatýras = tétaros.

taûtasos.- Unidentified (cf. tylas).

tengýros.- Unidentified.

terétistèsodikós.- Literally "skillful at singing". A warbler. Adopted in orn. as a name for an Antillean bird Teretistris (sic) fernandinae.

tétaros.- An other name for attagas, Francolin, 15, Ital. q.v.

tethizein.- To chirp ð5.13.1..

tettigon.- A green insect emitting a shrill sound (= green grasshopper) and not a green bird (it has been attributed to Regulus a tiny green bird) ð5.13.1..

tetráon,tetradion,tétradon,tétrax,tétrix = tétaros.- The Great Bustard, Otistarda, see F. Capponi, Latomus 21: 572-615, 1962. See also No. 15, Ital. Tetrao and tétrix are used in orn. for the Black Grouse Tetraotetrix, and tetrax for the Little Bustard Tetraxtetrax.

thakotálpas.- Brooding hen.

theókronos.- A fabulous bird.

thlypís,thlipís.- A small bird, Serin ? Adopted in orn. in the compound Geothlypis, etc.

thraupís,thrapis.- Prob. the Hawfinch; cf. thrayo,thraustós "to break", and see kokkothraûstès. Adopted as a generic name for some tanagers Thraupis.

thrax.- A nocturnal seabird, cf. Sic. turriáca, a petrel, 112.

thyr.- Unidentified.

thoos.- Unidentified.

titís.- A small unidentified bird. Has been used in orn. as a name for a redstart Phoenicurustithys (= Ph. ochruros).

tittybizo.- To chirp, crackle ð5.23.11..

tórgos.- Thompson suspects the name is akin to Coptic tore, prob. the Black Kite, 215, a carrion eater. Adopted as a generic name for an African vulture Torgos.

tórgoshygrophoitos.- Attributed to swan. The name would rather describe the Osprey, 203.

toûtis (okóssyphos).

tragodinos = astragalinos.

tragópan.- A ferruginous, redhead bird with a horn. Identified by Cuvier as the Himalayan pheasant Tragopansatyrus for which the name has bee adopted in orn. The identification as a calao by Newton does not agree with this description. The reference to "Ethiopia" posterior to Pliny should not be taken literally. It seems evident that this name is not popular, but purely literary.

trègon = trygon.

trèron.- Faulty reading for trègon. Adopted in orn. as a generic name for African and Asiatic green pigeons.

trichás.- A kind of thrush ð5.2.51..- Retained as a sc. name for an American warbler Geothlypistrichas (Has also been understood thrix and translated in Lat. by pilaris !).

tríkkos.- A small bird, cf. Mod. Gr. trékos Great Tit, 390 ð5.2.51..- Adopted in orn. for some South American flycatchers in the combinations Phaeotriccus etc.

triopís.- Unidentified, prob. the same as triorchís.

triórchès,triorchís.- A hawk, cf. Mod. Gr. tríorchos Kestrel, 234 ð6.3.1.. No kin to orchis "testicle". Retained in orn. in the combinations Urotriorchis and Dryotriorchis.

tróchilos.- A collective name for shorebirds, including the Nile Plover. The name can be likened to Mod. Gr. trochós "wheel, millstone" and trochalía "pulley" ð5.2.51.. Tróchilos has been retained in orn. as a name for the Willlow Warbler Phylloscopustrochilus following a confusion (by Pliny) with orchilos.

troglýtès,troglodýtès.- Wren, 406. Thompson rightly doubts the derivation from stroglè "hole". The Wren does not affect holes, contrary to the ceaselessly repeated etymologies, although it is usually seen slipping among thickets and clumps of branches. Troglýtès is a corruption, by folk-etymology, of strouglítis which is still in use in Mod. Gr. (q.v., 406). Adopted as a sc. name for the Wren Troglodytestroglodytes.

trygon,trègon,trèron.- Pigeon ð3.3.6.7..- Adopted in orn. in the compound Geotrygon, a genus of American dove.

tryngas.- A shorebird, perhaps pygargos the Green Sandpiper, 172 ð5.2.54..

tsáros. A hawk. Cf. Georg. sero id.

týïnga.- A small bird.

tylas = illas. Retained as a sc. name for a Malagasy nuthatch Tylasedwardi.

týpanos = týrannos.

týrannos.- A name given to the Wren, 406, like basileus. In Lydian tyrannos means "prince". Translation of a Romance name (roi, roitelet etc.). Adopted as a sc. name for some American flycatchers Tyrannus.

tyto.- An owl ð5.29.1..- Adopted in orn. as a name for the Barn Owl, 238 and in the combination Speotyto.

xíphios (Byz.).- A hawk, Mod. Gr. xíphtis, Sparrowhawk, 225 q.v.

xouthros, var. of strouthos.

xylokópos (adjective).- Woodpecker, 270, Mod. Gr. xylophagas.

záganos.- A hawk, cf. Mod. Gr. tságanos Black Kite, 215 ð5.3.3.5..

zárikes.- An epithet for the "stork" (perhaps also "heron"); (a doubtful word).

zènè.- A small yellow bird, cf. French cini Serin, 418.

zokos,jogión (Byz.) = záganos.

zorá,zoûrra (Byz.).- A "partridge".

Top Of Page